Microbiology Exam 3 Study Guide.docx

Microbiology Exam 3 Study Guide.docx - 1 Define a b c d e 2...

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1. Define: a. Genetics- science of heredity b. Genome- genetic information of a cell c. Chromosome- contains the genes of a cell d. Gene- segments of DNA that code for functional products e. Genetic code- set of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted into the amino acid sequence of a protein f. Genotype- DNA codes for all the characteristics of an organism g. Phenotype- the actual expressed properties of an organism h. Genomics- the sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes 2. Describe how DNA serves as genetic information a. What are the base pairing for DNA molecule? i. Adenine + Thymine ii. Cytosine + Guanine b. The DNA strands have nucleotide sequences that are transformed into mRNA, which are then used to make certain proteins that will express different characteristics based on the person. 3. Describe the DNA replication a. Include the functions of DNA polymerase, DNA gyrase, and DNA ligase i. DNA replication begins at the replication fork. Occurs in the cytoplasm. DNA gyrase relaxed the supercoiling of the DNA strand, then DNA helicase unwinds the strand. DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strand from the 5’ to the 3’ end. One of the DNA strands is not synthesized continuously, so DNA ligase comes in to join the DNA segments. When replication is complete you have two new double-stranded DNA strands that have one parents and one daughter strand. 4. Describe protein synthesis, including transcription, RNA processing, and translation. a. What is the role of the promoter, terminator, and mRNA in transcription? i. Transcription transforms DNA to mRNA. It starts at the promoter when RNA polymerase binds to the promoter to begin transcription. RNA polymerase synthesizes the mRNA strand from 5’ to 3’ from a complementary DNA strand.
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