Lecture 15 objectives.doc

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Lecture 15 objectives 1. Describe the functions of the three types of granulocytes. Basophils- similar to mast cells in skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. They release histamine, heparin, and other substances when activated by T- lymphocytes. Phagocytosis is not important Eosinophils- They attack some parasites. They attach themselves to the surface of the parasite and release substance that kills many of them. They also inactivate substances released by basophils and mast cells during allergic reactions. Neutrophils are the body’s first line of defense against invading bacteria. They search out, kill, and phagocytize bacteria involved in infection. 2. Describe the function of the monocytes. List all the cells derived from them Monocytes are the largest type of blood cell. They enter the blood from bone marrow. After 72 hours, they enter the tissues and become tissue macrophages. They are phagocytes of the body. They do not reenter circulation, and survive for about 3 months in the tissues. They are activated by T-lymphocytes. The monocytes are believed to differentiate into pulmonary alveolar macrophages, kupffer cells in the liver, and dendritic cells, and osteoclasts. 3. List all the types of lymphocytes. Natural Killer cells, B-Lymphocytes, and T- Lymphocytes which are further divided into (regulatory, cytoxic, and helper) Describe one method by which neutrophils destroy bacteria (hint – NADPH) One thing they do is use a highly reactive gas (superoxide) and phagocytize that way. 4. Define leukopenia and describe its causes and consequences. Leukopenia is agranulocytosis, and the bone marrow stops producing white blood cells. This can be casued by exposure to gamma rays, or to drugs that contain benzene or anthracene chemical structures. It leaves the body unprotected
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against invasion by bacteria that are always residing on the mucous membranes of the mouth, repiratory, and gastrointestinal tracts. Death can occur in 3-6 days.
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