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Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide.docx

Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide.docx - BIOL 240 Fall 2017...

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BIOL 240- Fall 2017 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 1. Distinguish between a carbohydrate, a lipid, a protein and a nucleic acid based on chemical structure. a. Carbohydrate- C, H, O b. Lipid- C, H, O, sometimes nitrogen and phosphorous c. Protein- C, H, O, N d. Nucleic acid- C, H, O, N, P 2. Distinguish between the functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. a. Carbohydrates- energy storage, food reserve, structural b. Lipids- energy storage, structure of cell membrane and cell wall c. Proteins- regulation, structure, membrane transport, immune function d. Nucleic acids- genetic variation 3. Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Give 3 examples of each. a. Monosaccharides- simple sugars *glucose, deoxyribose, ribose, galactose, fructose b. Disaccharides- two mono together i. Lactose- glucose + galactose ii. Sucrose- glucose + fructose iii. Maltose – glucose + glucose c. Polysaccharides- many mono together i. Glycogen ii. Cellulose iii. Chitin iv. Starch v. Peptidoglycan 4. Distinguish between a triglyceride, a phospholipid and a sterol. Give 2 examples of each. a. Triglyceride- simple lipids i. Saturated ii. Unsaturated b. Phospholipid- complex lipids i. Have glycerol head, two fatty acid tails c. Sterol- important contents of the plasma membrane of animal cells. i. When an OH group is attached to one of the rings = sterol ii. Cholesterol, 5. Distinguish between a saturated fatty acid, a cis unsaturated fatty acid and a trans unsaturated fatty acid. a. Saturated fatty acid- has all single bonds. Stack easily. Bad for health b. Cis unsaturated fatty acid- has carbon to carbon double bond. Bond to hydrogen is on different side, making it very bent. Good fat for health
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c. Trans unsaturated fatty acid- has carbon to carbon double bond. Bond to hydrogen is on the same side, so stacks easily similar to saturated fats. Bad for health. 6. What is a hydrocarbon? a. Compound made of only hydrogen and carbon. Found often in petroleum and natural gas 7. Distinguish between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis as these processes relate to organic compounds. a. Dehydration synthesis- combining to monosaccharides to form a disaccharide with the removal of one water molecule b. Hydrolysis- splitting a disaccharide into two monosaccharides 8. Distinguish between the suffixes –ose and –ase. a. Ose- simple sugars b. Ase- proteins 9. Distinguish between polar and nonpolar substances. How do we tell them apart? a. Polar- hydrophilic, electrons are given away/taken, have bent molecules b. Nonpolar- hydrophobic, electrons are shared, have straight molecules 10. Distinguish between a carboxyl group and an amine group as found in amino acid structures. a. Carboxyl group- COOH b. Amine group- NH2 11. Distinguish between primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of a protein.
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