biology exam 7 review.docx

biology exam 7 review.docx - Principles of Biology Exam 7...

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Principles of Biology Exam 7 Study Guide Class 1: 1. Learn the characteristics that generally distinguish animals from other types of organisms. a. Eukaryotic b. Heterotrophic c. Lack cell walls d. Multicellular e. Oxygen requiring f. Have mobility 2. Learn how animals can be classified according to the characteristics described in objectives 4, 5, 6, and 7. 3. Explore the basic phylogenetic tree for animals, and learn about the appearance of the characteristics described in objectives 4, 5, 6, and 7 during the evolution of animals. a. Start with protist (unicellular) multicellularity appearance of tissue level of organization organ level of organization (have specialized functions), appearance of symmetry (radial, bilateral, asymmetry) coelom (acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomates) b. Embryonic layers: i. Endoderm- the inner layer from which intestines and other internal organs are derived *digestive system, lungs, kidneys, liver ii. Mesoderm- the middle layer from which muscles and bones are derived *blood iii. Ectoderm- the outside layer from which the skin and nervous system are derived c. See phylogenetic tree in book 4. Distinguish between radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry. a. Radial b. Bilateral 5. Identify the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm) that form the tissue types found in most animals, and learn about some of the tissues that come from each primary germ (tissue) layer. a. Embryonic layers: i. Endoderm- the inner layer from which intestines and other internal organs are derived *digestive system, lungs, kidneys, liver ii. Mesoderm- the middle layer from which muscles and bones are derived *blood iii. Ectoderm- the outside layer from which the skin and nervous system are derived 6. Define coelom, and learn about some of the advantages that animals with coeloms have compared to animals without a coelom. a. Coelom- b. Coelomate vs. pseudocoelomate: has cavity but cavity is not totally surrounded by mesoderm c. Advantage of coelom: protection, more flexibility 7. Define segmentation and cephalization, and learn the advantages that these developments conferred during the evolution of animals. a. Segmentation: repeated portions of the body b. See in worms, millipedes, centipedes
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c. Humans have segmentation in spine d. Cephalization: having a head, massive amount of nervous tissue on anterior portion of body i. Cephalopods- octopus, have big heads e. Advantage of segmentation: move easily, bend, f. Advantage of cephalization: complete very complex tasks 8. Define tissues, organs, and organ systems, and examine the relationships between these. a. Tissues- specific type of cell all together that all perform specific function b. Organs- made of several tissues together, more specialized function c. Organ systems- each portion has specific function along the way 9. Identify the four types of animal tissues, and some of the functions each performs.
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