BIO EXAM 2.docx - Introtoplants Importanceofplants o...

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Intro to plants Importance of plants o Food source/ base of food chain o Balance atmospheric gases- convert CO2 to organic matter and O2 o Fossil fuels- produced from deposits of plant remains o Medicine/ health o Form basis of habitat for all other organisms Resource limitations in biomes o Precipitation o Temperature o Evapotranspiration o Geology o Human  Plant adaptations to environment o Reduced leaves in desert (succulents) o Tough needs as leaves in cold (deciduous) o Broad leaves to capture light in rainforest Tropical rainforest o Species rich, poor soil, forest floor sparse o Epiphytes and lianas- wrap around trees to get up high in canopy for light o Broad-leaved plants- capture light in low- light environments Savanna (tropical grassland) o Drought, warm temperatures o Grasses, widely scattered trees,  bulbous plants,  few annuals o Trees- small leaves to minimize water transpiration Desert o High temp during day, cold at night; little moisture/precipitation o Annuals common, but also have perennials o Annuals- complete life cycle rapidly, seeds can survive drought and germinate  rapidly o Xerophytic adaptations - no/few leaves, thick cuticle to reduce water loss/reflect  light Mediterranean forest (chaparral) o Poor soil but diverse plant life o Hot/dry summer, cool/wet winter o Perennial shrubs o Dense cover, low canopy height Temperate grassland (prairies or steppes) o Colder temp, fertile soil o Grass dominant, herbs; few trees Temperate forest o Warm summer, cold winter; moderate precipitation o Several layers of vegetation
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o Deciduous trees/shrubs o Perennials common on forest floor o Few annual species Tundra (arctic) o Furthest limit of plant growth o No trees or shrubs o No annuals o Perennial plants common Taiga o Short wet summers, long cold winters o Nutrient-poor, acidic o Conifers o Responsible for annual oscillation global CO2 concentrations o Highest tree density Perennial - survive year to year Annual - completes life cycle in one year and then dies Plant diversity and Bryophytes  Common features between plants and algae ancestors o Cellulose cell wall o Starch as storage form o Chlorophylls a and b, beta- carotene o Similar mechanisms of mitosis and cytokinesis  o Sperm ultrastructure o Molecular data (gene sequence) o Life cycles Limitations on moving on land o Getting enough water o Maintaining structure o Dispersal of gametes New adaptations for living on land o Root-like rhizoids (structural support) o Vasculature and leaves o Cuticle (keeps from drying out) o Stomata (control of gas exchange) o Vascular tissue and true roots (structural support) o Spores (reproduction) Haploid dominant
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