Plant Form and Function II.docx -...

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Plant Form and Function II Leaf Structure, tissue organization Epidermis- outer layer Mesophyll (middle leaf) Palisade mesophyll- top (most of the photosynthesis) Spongy mesophyll- bottom (photosynthesis and gas exchange) Vascular tissue Epidermis and Stomata  Cuticle Stomata o CO2 enters, H2O and O2 leave during the day (photosynthesis and transpiration) o O2 enters, CO2 leaves during the night (respiration) o Guard cells regulate gas and water vapor movement by opening and closing the  stomata Vascular Tissue Continuous with stem (and roots) Xylem and phloem Structural support and transport Leaf structure and photosynthesis Typical leaf and palisade cell contains 30-40 chloroplasts Cell is 30-40 UM= 0.00004 m Chloroplast is 2-10 UM= 0.000002m Chloroplasts Circular genome Outer and inner membranes Stroma and thylakoid membranes Grana and Stroma Thylakoid membranes- function in harvesting light energy (light reaction) Grana- contain chlorophyll and accessory pigments that absorb light Stroma- functions in CO2 fixation into sugars (Calvin Cycle) Light spectrum Chloroplasts reflect green and absorb red/blue light, which is used for photosynthesis Chlorophyll molecules are main light- harvesting pigments The absorption spectrum plots the wavelengths of light which are absorbed by the  pigment; the action spectrum plots photosynthetic rate against wavelength Energy is trapped in photosynthesis 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 5 C-C bonds 4 C-C-C-C bonds you have high energy lipids in fats and that’s why we shouldn’t eat too much fat electron= energy electrons- reducing power stored in cells as NADH or NADPH
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Electrons come from H 2 O H 2 O is oxidized to O 2 Overview of photosynthesis 6CO 2  + 6H 2  C 6 H 12 O + 6O 2 Two components of photosynthesis Light reactions- convert solar energy to chemical energy (ATP, NADPH) o Thylakoid membrane o Light + H 2 O  O +ATP + NADPH Dark reactions- CO 2  fixation into organic sugars o Stroma o Calvin cycle o CO 2  Glucose o Carbon is reduced o First organic product of CO 2  fixation is 3-C molecule ATP and NADPH are used by the dark reactions to fix CO 2  to sugars Global climate change  Increasing atmospheric CO 2  concentration Greenhouse effect- increased plant growth in short-term lab experiments Larger scale, longer term experiments: o Acclimation (adaptation) to CO 2 - reduced growth o Increasing temperature- plant stress o Changing precipitation patterns- less water available for plants o Increasing limitation of other nutrients soil nitrogen o All CO
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