Microbiology Exam 4 Study Guide.docx

Microbiology Exam 4 Study Guide.docx - Study guide for Exam...

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Study guide for Exam 4 Chapters 14 and 15 Chapter 14– Refer to the worksheet Be able to know, understand and apply into contexts all the definitions provided on the worksheet. Chapter 15- 1. Identify the principal portals of entry a. Describe how microorganisms gain access through each i. Mucous membranes - mouth, vagina, nose ii. Skin – only enter through break in the skin iii. Parenteral route - iv. Preferred portal of entry – only cause infection if they enter through their preferred portal of entry b. How can portal of entry influence pathogenicity? i. The portal of entry affects the number of pathogens it will take to cause an infection 2. Define ID50 and LD50 a. The LD50 of botulinum toxin is 0.03ng/kg; the LD50 of Salmonella toxin is 12ng/kg. Which is the more potent toxin? i. Botulinum toxin is more potent because it takes a much smaller amount of the toxin to cause the same effects. b. ID50 = infectious dose 50. The dose that will cause an infection in 50% of sample population c. LD50 = lethal dose 50. The dose that will kill 50% of sample population 3. Using examples, explain how microbes adhere to host cells a. How would a drug that binds to mannose on human cells affect a pathogenic bacterium?
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