Chapter 9 Notes.docx

Chapter 9 Notes.docx - EXS 2400 Chapter 9 Water and...

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EXS 2400 Chapter 9: Water and Minerals 9.1 Introducing Water and Minerals Sweating can cause the body to lose a significant amount of “water weight”; however, sweating can also cause dehydration (body water depletion), especially when a person restricts his or her fluid intake. Severe dehydration is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent medical care. Hyperthermia— very high body temperature We often take water for granted, but this simple molecule is highly essential. You can survive for weeks, even months, if your diet lacks carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins. But if you do not have any water, your life will end within a week or two. Many of water’s function involve certain minerals. About 15 mineral elements have known functions in the body and are necessary for human health. The body requires these nutrients particular micronutrients in milligram or microgram amounts. The essential minerals are classified into two groups: major minerals and trace minerals. Major minerals— essential mineral elements required in amounts of 100 mg or more per day Trace minerals— essential mineral elements required in amounts that are less than 100 mg per day If we require 100 mg or more of a mineral per day, the mineral is classified as a major mineral; otherwise, the micronutrient is a trace mineral. Minerals with Known or Possible Roles in the Body: o Major Mineral: Calcium (Ca), Chloride (Cl - ), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Sulfur (S) o Trace Mineral: Chromium (Cr), Fluoride (F - ), Copper (Cu), Iodine (I), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Selenium (Se), Zinc (Zn) o Possible Essential Mineral: Arsenic (As), Boron (B), Lithium (Li), Nickel (Ni), Silicon (Si), Vanadium (V) The body also contains very small amounts of other minerals, such as nickel and arsenic. The essential nature of this particular group of minerals has not been fully determined, so we will refer to them as “possible essential minerals.” The mineral nutrients are key component of body structures and play vital roles in metabolism, water balance, muscle movement, and various physiological processes. Mineral deficiencies can cause serious health problems and, in severe cases, death. 9.2 Water Compared to other nutrients, water is so unusual, it is in a class by itself. Water is a simple compound: A molecule of water is comprised of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H 2 O). Water does not need to be digested, and it is easily absorbed by the intestinal tract. Depending on a person’s age, sex, and body composition, 50 to 75% of his or her body is water weight. Lean muscle tissue contains more water (about 73%) than fat tissue (about 20%). On average, young adult men have more lean tissue than young women.
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