Sectional Crisis.pptx - The Union at Risk cfw The Coming of...

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{ The Union at Risk The Coming of the American Civil War, 1815-1860
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Agreement between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in Congress, to settle the dispute over the introduction of Missouri to the Union. Finalized in 1820 Provisions Missouri would enter as a slave state, Maine would enter as a free state to maintain the balance. Slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory North of the Line 36° 30’ Temporarily settles the sectional controversy in the territories, until the acquisition of the Mexican Cession following the Mexican-American War. Missouri Compromise
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Starts with the Tariff of 1828 also called the "Tariff of Abominations” Reaches crisis level during the presidency of Andrew Jackson John C. Calhoun , South Carolina Exposition and Protest South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. Declared, by the power of the State itself, that the federal Tariffs of 1828 & 1832 were unconstitutional & therefore, null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state. On July 14, 1832, after Calhoun had resigned his office in order to run for the Senate where he could more effectively defend nullification, Jackson signed into law the Tariff of 1832. Support by most northerners and half of the southerners in Congress. Too little for South Carolina, and in November 1832 a state convention declared both Tariffs unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina In late February. 1833 new tariff and Force Bill passed in Congress, SC repeals Nullification Ordinance March 11 Outcome: Reduced tariff rates, but the states’ rights doctrine of nullification had been rejected by the nation. Tariff policy would continue to be a national political issue between Democrats and the newly emerged Whig Party . By the 1850s the intertwined issues of slavery and territorial expansion would become the most significant and sectionally divisive issue in the nation. The Nullification Controversy
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John C. Calhoun (South Carolina)
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Founded 1848, absorbed into Republican party in 1854 Single issue party Opposed the expansion of slavery into new territories Free men on free soil are a labor system morally and economically superior to slavery Sometimes work to remove laws discriminating against free blacks They did not advocate the abolition of slavery where it existed, only argued in opposition to its expansion. Wilmot Proviso Proposed by David Wilmot in 1848 Would ban slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico including areas in Texas and New Mexico, as well as what became the Mexican Cession Free Soilers
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Package of five bills, passed on September 4, 1850 the joint work of Henry Clay, Stephen Douglas, & Daniel Webster Defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North that arose from expectation of territorial expansion following the Texas Annexation (December 29, 1845) and the Mexican-American War (1846–1848).
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