Chapter 8 Notes.docx

Chapter 8 Notes.docx - EXS 2400 Chapter 8 Vitamins 8.1...

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EXS 2400 Chapter 8: Vitamins 8.1 Vitamins: Basic Concepts Scurvy— vitamin C-deficiency disease The first signs and symptoms of scurvy—fatigue and petechiae, pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin—occurred about 20 to 40 days after setting sail. As the disease progressed, the affected person’s skin bruised easily; gums swelled, became spongy, and bled after being barely touched; teeth loosened and fell out. The person suffering from scurvy also become irritable and depressed. A sign of the disease was the opening up of old scars, exposing wounds that could become infected. Scurvy victims eventually died, generally from infections, brain hemorrhages, or heart complications. In 1753, British physician James Lind published an article describing an experiment he had performed on 12 sailors suffering from scurvy. o Lind divided the sick sailors into six pairs, and each pair received a different treatment. o Six treatments were cider, vinegar, sulfuric acid, seawater, nutmeg, or oranges and lemons. o Lind observed pair of sailors given the citrus fruits were the only ones to recover from scurvy. o Lind found the cure for scurvy: eating oranges and lemons Today, we know that scurvy results form a deficiency of vitamin C and that citrus fruits are among the richest dietary sources of the vitamin. Although Lind is often credited with having discovered the cure for scurvy, he did not suspect the disease resulted from the lack of something in the typical seafarer’s diet. At that time, scientists were unaware that food contained vitamins. In 1911, Polish chemist Casimir Funk discovered a substance in an extract made from rice bran that he thought would cure the disease beriberi. o Funk called the compound a “vitamine” (vita = necessary for life; amine = a type of nitrogen-containing substance) because of its chemical structure. The term vitamine was later modified to vitamin, when scientists determined that there were several kinds of these substances in foods and not all were amines. By the end of the twentieth century, scientists had added riboflavin, niacin, biotin, B-6, B-12, pantothenic acid, folate, ascorbic acid, A, D, E, and K to the list of vitamins. Humans also require choline, especially during prenatal (before birth) development. Like vitamin D, the body can make choline, but under certain conditions, the body does not synthesize enough to meet its needs. Choline is considered to be a vitamin-like essential nutrient. It is unlikely that any vitamins still need to be discovered. Why? o Babies grow and thrive on infant formulas, synthetic liquid diets containing vitamins and other nutrients known to be essential for health. o Additionally, very ill people who cannot eat solid food can be kept alive for years on liquid synthetic feedings that contain all known nutrients, including vitamins.
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