HW Chapter 1.docx - Chapter 1 Although Native Americans had...

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Chapter 1 Although Native Americans had established functioning and complex societies in the Pre-Columbian era, Spanish and Portuguese exploration led to a radical shift in Native American and European societies alike. These changes were facilitated by the Columbian Exchange, the Conquistadors, and disease. While Spain and Portugal were politically stable and had excess resources to explore in the 1500s, France and England could not. Occupied fighting wars like the Hundred Years’ War, these countries did not gain the resources for exploration until the 1600s. As Portuguese explorers like Vasco da Gama made journeys to Africa, the Spanish ventured westward. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI wrote the Doctrine of Discovery, advocating for exploration to spread Catholicism, spurring many Spaniards to travel the Atlantic. American and European societies were changed by the Columbian Exchange. Slaves were brought from Africa to provide labor for American
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