Chapter 51 .pdf

Chapter 51 .pdf - Chapter 51 Tuesday October 24 2017 9:00...

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Behavior: Action or responseto a stimulus, what can animal does and how it doesit. Behavior are a result of bothgenetics (nature) and environmental (nurture) influences. Learnedbehavior Is durable, usuallyadaptive Maybe modifiedby experience Maybe constrained byevolution (genetics) Individualsmay improve behaviorsover time as related to maturation Innate behavior: youare born it, developmentally fixed. Instinctive behavior: is a behavioral pattern that reliably develops in animals that receive normal upbringing and adequate nutrition, may be shaped bylearning. Developed as you grow.Is displayed in its functional formon its 1st performance. Types of behaviors Habituation : learning toignore unimportant, irrelevant stimulus, or repeated stimuli that do notprovide proper feedback (ex. Ignore stimulusin the surrounding environemnt, which are notharmful.Birds duckat leafs and stuff, butsoonthey learn to only duckfrom predators). Imprinting: learning is limited to a specific critical period, generally irreversible (life- long), often involvesmating. Ex. Imprintingoccurs in some species of birds and lasts for life (thebirds follow their motheraround) Associative learning: ability of an organism to associate one stimulus withanother stimulus. Classical conditioning: animal learns to respondto an external stimulus, that normally does notelicit that response. Operant conditioning: ananimal learns to associate one of its ownbehavior with a reward or punishmentand then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior Ex. Coyotelearn to notplay with a porcupine, decrease in behaviorsince porcupine have prickly back Insightlearning: the correct behavior solvesthe problem onfirst try and involves reasoning Chapter 51 Tuesday, October 24, 2017 9:00 PM
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reasoning Ex. Crowsmake hooksbycutting of tree branches, the experiment gave them wires and they were still able to master it. Observational learning: the ability of animals to learn byobserving the actions other Play: behavior has nogoal, but utilizes movementwhich are closely related with goal- directed behaviors, physiological, social and cognitive practice. Develops skills, but may be costly and dangerous. Kinesis: a change in activity rate in responseto a stimulus. Ex. Sow bugsin dry area, walkseverywhere lookingfor moisture. Goes into the moistside under andstop walking.Increased rate for activity. Multi direction Taxis: flies are positive phototaxis as they are attracted to light. Notalways light, can be soundetc. Negativityphototaxis, flatwormswhodon’tlike light, foundunder rock.
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