Paper#3.docx - Spring 2017 Prof Wasley CIS 4100-02 PAPER 3...

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Spring 2017 CIS 4100-02 Sevan Aslanian Prof. Wasley PAPER 3: PARALLEL PROCESSING 04/05/2017 SUMMARY In computers, parallel processing is the processing of program instructions by dividing them among multiple processors with the objective of running a program in less time. In the earliest computers, only one program ran at a time. A computation-intensive program that took one hour to run and a tape copying program that took one hour to run would take a total of two hours to run. An early form of parallel processing allowed the interleaved execution of both programs together. The computer would start an I/O operation, and while it was waiting for the operation to complete, it would execute the processor-intensive program. BODY The next improvement was multiprogramming. In a multiprogramming system, multiple programs submitted by users were each allowed to use the processor for a short time. To users it appeared that OF all the programs were executing at the same time. Problems of resource contention first arose in these systems. Explicit requests for resources led to the problem of the deadlock. Competition for resources on machines with no tie-breaking instructions lead to the critical section routine. Vector processing was another attempt to increase performance by doing more than one thing at a time. In this case, capabilities were added to machines to allow a single instruction to add (or subtract, or multiply, or otherwise manipulate) two arrays of numbers. This was valuable in certain engineering applications where data naturally occurred in the form of vectors or matrices.
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