Lecture 18- self note.docx - Lecture 18 Chapter 18&17 Cakes...

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Lecture 18. Chapter 18 &17 Cakes o Shortened cakes (butter cake) Contain fat and usually have a source of leavening (baking powder) Pound cake 1 lb each of butter, sugar, flour and eggs with no leavening agent except for the air incorporated in the creaming of the fat and sugar and in the beaten eggs Steam responsible for half of the expansion Close grain, compact, very tender, not heavy or soggy, lack soft the soft, velvety crumb of a well- made shortened cake Standard shortened cake (by measure) 1/3 as much fat as sugar, 2/3 as much milk as sugar, and about 3x much flour as liquid, only small amount of salt for flavoring Leavened by CO 2 gas from baking powder or soda and buttermilk Air incorporated (creaming of sugar and shortening or butter and beating eggs or egg whites) Soft, light velvety crumb (elastic rather than crumbly), fine grain, thin cell walls Crust should be thin and tender Sugar, fat, egg, liquid, leavening agent, salt, flour Gelatinized starch important to cake structure Egg protein provides structure Fat increases tenderness but weakens structure and decreases volume if too much added o A proper balance between tenderizing effects of sugar and fat and the firming or structural effects of flour and egg is particularly important in shortened cakes. Optimum stirring produces good volume, uniform texture, small cells and thin cell walls, lightly rounded on top o Bake at 350-375˚F (177-191˚C) Browning due to Maillard Reaction and carmelization o Foam cake (unshortened cake) May or may not contain fat (butter, shortening, or oil) Leavened to a large extent by whipped egg whites or eggs Retention of air in whipped egg whites or eggs is critical in foam cakes to result in the expected volume and texture. Chiffon cake Characteristics of the shortened and unshortened Larger proportion of egg than a shortened cake – similar to unshortened cakes Fat in form of oil White Angel Food cake Made from egg whites, Fat-free Need incorporation and retention of air (beaten egg whites, steam) for expansion and texture development Porous or spongy, large volume, thin cell walls, tender and moist Primary ingredients: Egg whites, sugar, cake flour, cream of tartar o Egg whites (fresh; thicker and more stable foam, room temperature: greater volume) incorporate air as beaten and coagulate, stabilizing the foam o Egg white proteins coagulated by heat and contribute to structure o Cake flour (low protein weak gluten) fine granulation) produces a more tender, delicate cake o Sugar stabilizes the egg white foam, sweetens and aids in browning Interfere gluten development
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