signalling part 1.pdf - Lecture 16 Cell signaling Part 1...

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Lecture 16- Cell signaling – Part 1 , basically up to page 698 Chapter 23 At the end of this section you should -Recognize that some signaling molecules bind to cell surface receptors and some signaling molecules diffuse into the cell and what distinguishes them -Understand the general principles of cell signaling via an extracellular signaling molecule binding to a receptor protein in addition to how to turn of the signal, e.g. slides 20 and 29 -Know the four characteristics of signal-transducing systems, e.g., slide 6 and 7 -Key terms- Paracrine, Endocrine, Autocrine, and Contact-dependent signaling, or Juxtracrine -Understand molecular complementarity and K d -Know G-proteins and their general properties. There are trimeric and monomeric G-proteins. -Understand GPCR structure and function -Know G-proteins can be stimulatory or inhibitory -Know the basic cascade from ligand binding to effector molecule activation, e.g. Adenylate cyclase -What is the role of cAMP? -What is the role of PDE? -What is the role of IP3/DAG in signaling? -Know the ways in which signaling is turned off, e.g., b -arrestin, GTP hydrolysis, calcium reuptake -Know the importance of calcium signaling and the calcium binding protein, calmodulin -Examples of the integration of signaling pathways PO 4 PO 4 Kinase Phosphatase Target 1 Changes in protein activity The first 21 slides all address basic concepts of signaling
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Lodish, Fig. 15-1 The Big Picture 4 Also see Figure 23-2
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Signal Transduction Mechanisms: Messengers and Receptors In a major means of intercellular communication the signal is transmitted by regulatory chemical messengers Receptors are located on receiving cells that can be quite distant from the secreting cell Chemical Signals and Cellular Receptors Cells produce signals, in some cases by displaying molecules on their surfaces or by releasing a chemical signal Multicellular organisms can control the activities of specialized cells through release of chemical messengers 5
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The Big Picture 7 -As the signal is relayed it may be amplified, altered (transduced) and/or distributed -Many of the steps can be modulated by other extracellular and intracellular signals -Ultimately though, the signal pathway activates (or inactivates) target proteins that alter cell behavior (in this example, the target is a gene regulatory protein) Transfer Transform Amplify Divergence
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Yes, its mind-boggling! TIBS, 1994 8
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1. 2. No cell surface receptor Nuclear receptor superfamily 3 Main Classes -G-protein coupled -Enzyme linked -Ion-channel linked Two Primary Mechanisms for Signaling 9
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Different Types of Chemical Signals Can Be Received by Cells Signaling molecules are often classified based on the distance between the site of production and the target Endocrine signals are produced far from the target
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