wk 3 discussion of advanced pathophyiology.docx

wk 3 discussion of advanced pathophyiology.docx - Because...

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Because of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA), I am bound to respect the patient privacy. Since Rachel does not want to share this information with her sister, so I won’t try to contact Kristin and inform her that Rachel genetic test is positive for mutated breast cancer gene. I would ask her if her other sister Lisa would share this information with Kristin. Being an advocate for the patient, I definitely explain the importance of positive result of testing for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and different options of preventative treatment. If I were unable to convince her to disclose this potentially life-threatening illness to her sister, then I would refer her to another healthcare provider for genetic counseling. It might be possible someone would convince her to reach out to her apart sister. Breast cancer is most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women of the United States. Between 13-15% women suffered from breast cancer. Most breast cancer arises from the epithelial lining of ducts or some from alveoli. It is a mixed disease with various molecular, biologic, phenotypic, and pathologic changes. Numerous genetic and epigenetic pathways can develop into malignancy (McCance & Heuther, 2014). It might appear initially as a lump that spread eventually to other breast or part of the body. Biological, environmental, and endocrine factors may possibly cause gene mutation within cells creating malignancy. Invasive breast cancer originates in the terminal duct of breast lobule and progresses through phases of increasing proliferation, atypical hyperplasia, and carcinoma in situ before cancer gets invasive and metastatic abilities (Leonga, & Zhuangb, 2011). Though, new research has acknowledged changes in stromal cell function may be dangerous for disease advancement from benign disease to invasive cancer. In invasive cancer, myoepithelial cells lost their function of maintaining the tissue structure and fibroblasts activate and release enzyme protease that destroys the extracellular matrix and elicits the invasive cellular phenotype. The immune system normally destroys the cells with damaged DNA. Failure of this defense mechanism results in breast cancer (Leonga, & Zhuangb, 2011).
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