Chapter-8-Language-and-Cognition.pptx

Chapter-8-Language-and-Cognition.pptx - Language and...

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Language and Cognition Chapter 8
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Can we learn to be better thinkers?
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Thinking and Reasoning Thinking The manipulation of mental representations of information. Representation may take the form of a word, a visual image, a sound, or data in any other sensory modality stores in memory. Thinking transforms a particular representation of information into new and different forms, allowing us to answer questions, solve problems, or reach goals.
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Mental Images: Examining the Mind’s Eye Mental images - Representations in the mind of an object or event. our ability to “hear” a tune in our heads also relies on a mental image.
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Concepts: Categorizing the World Concepts- mental groupings of similar objects, events, or people. enable us to organize complex phenomena into simpler, and therefore more easily usable, cognitive categories Prototypes- Typical, highly representative examples of a concept.
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Reasoning: Making Up Your Mind Syllogistic reasoning - Formal reasoning in which people draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions. Premise 1 All professors are mortal. Premise 2 Dr. Rivera is a professor. Conclusion Therefore, Dr. Rivera is mortal.
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Algorithm- A rule that, if applied appropriately, guarantees a solution to a problem. Heuristic - A thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution to a problem or decision, but—unlike algorithms—may sometimes lead to errors. representativeness heuristic- a rule we apply when we judge people by the degree to which they represent a certain category or group of people.
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