Knee and lower leg.docx - Knee and lower leg Knee supports...

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Knee and lower leg Knee supports the weight above When extended (straight leg), knee stability arises from its vertical alignment and the fit of joints surfaces When flexed the knee is stabilized by capsule, ligaments and muscles Knee is prone to injury because of the mechanical demands on it and the reliance on soft tissue for support Bones of knee: Femur, Tibia, Patella and Fibula Femur: Distal end of femur articulates tibia to transfer body weight from femur to the lower leg at the knee Lateral and medial epicondyles are muscle attachments The condyles articulate with the tibia and patella Medial condyle is slightly more distal and larger than lateral Femur projects obliquely Tibia: is the larger medial bone of the lower leg It articulates with the femur and bears weight of the body Landmarks are the lateral, medial and tibial tuberosity Fibula is the smaller lateral bone of the lower leg It bears little weight and is a major source of soft tissue attachment Landmarks are apex, head and neck Knee is the largest sesamoid bone It ossifies at 2-3 years Landmarks are the base and apex Lateral and medial articular surfaces on posterior are covered by articular cartilage and articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur Knee joint is a synovial joint Inner synovial membrane lubricates the joint Outer fibrous membrane surrounds and protects the joint The articular capsule of the knee are are connective tissue that surrounds and stabilizes the joint capsule Femur articulates with the tibia and the patella Tibiofemoral articulation Femoral condyles articulate with tibia condyles Modified hinge joint Internal and external rotation Patellofemoral articulation Posterior base of patella fits between lateral and medial condyles on anterior surfaces of femur
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