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Microtubules Microtubules are the largest of the cytoskeletal components of a cell There are two types of microtubules They are involved in a variety of functions in the cell 1- Cytoplasmic microtubules pervade the cytosol and are responsible for a variety of functions - Maintaining axons - Formation of mitotic and meiotic spindles - Maintaining or altering cell shape - Placement and movement of vesicles 2- Axonemal microtubules include the organized and stable microtubules found in structures such as - Cilia - Flagella - Basal bodies to which cilia and flagella attach The axoneme , the central shaft of a cilium or flagellum, is a highly ordered bundle of MTs 2
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Motors and the cytoskeleton Watanabe et al., 2005 Duncan and Goldstein, 2006 3 Myosin- Actin motor Kinesin – Anterograde MT motor Dynein – Retrograde MT motor
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Cellular Movement: Motility and Contractility Cell motility involves Movement of a cell or organism through the environment Movement of the environment past or through the cell Movement of components in the cell Contractility, used to describe shortening of muscle cells, is a specialized form of contractility (will not be discussed extensively in this class, you’ve seen this in many others) Motility occurs at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels Intracellular components move, e.g., microtubules of the mitotic spindle play a role in the separation of chromosomes during cell division To generate movement, MTs and MFs provide a scaffold for motor proteins or mechanoenzymes that produce motion at the molecular level 4
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Intracellular Microtubule-Based Movement: Kinesin and Dynein MTs provide a rigid set of tracks for transport of a variety of organelles and vesicles Traffic toward the minus ends of MTs is considered ± inbound ² ; toward the plus end is ± outbound ² Microtubule-associated motor proteins walk along the MTs and provide the force needed for movement Figure 14-2 6 Figure 14-1
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Two proteins responsible for fast axonal transport (Vast over simplification) Kinesin I is involved in ATP-dependent transport toward the plus ends (away from the centrosome), called anterograde axonal transport Cytoplasmic dynein moves particles ( cargo ) in the opposite direction, called retrograde axonal transport 8
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Adapted from Bray, 2001 Axon Human Motor Neuron The magnitude of the dimensions of a nerve cell The surface area of the axon is 10,000x that of the cell body 9
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Axonal Transport Under study since the 1940s
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  • Spring '17
  • cilia, ATP hydrolysis

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