Chapter 12- Development.pptx - Development Chapter 12...

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Development Chapter 12
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Nature and Nurture The issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior. How can we distinguish between the environmental causes of behavior (the influence of parents, siblings, family, friends, schooling, nutrition, and all the other experiences to which a child is exposed) and hereditary causes (those based on an individual’s genetic makeup that influence growth and development throughout life)? Learning plays a part in producing changes genetic factors not only provide the potential for specific behaviors or traits to emerge, but also place limitations on the emergence of such behavior or traits. Heredity defines people’s general level of intelligence-regardless of the quality of the environment Influence of physiological make up and functioning Maturation- then folding of biologically predetermined patterns of behavior. Interactionist - position on the nature–nurture issue by suggesting that a combination of hereditary and environmental factors influences development.
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Characteristics affected by heredity
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Determining the Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture identical twins- Twins who are genetically identical. display different patterns of development, those differences have to be attributed to variations in the environment in which the twins were raised. siblings who show similarities as adults provide strong evidence for the importance of heredity
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Developmental Research Techniques cross-sectional research - A research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time. Cohort - a group of people who grow up at similar times, in similar places, and in similar conditions. longitudinal research - A research method that investigates behavior as participants age sequential research - A research method that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time.
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The Basics of Genetics chromosomes - Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information. Genes - The parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted. When an egg and a sperm meet at the moment of fertilization, the egg provides an X chromosome, and the sperm provides either an X or a Y chromosome. If the sperm contributes an X chromosome, the child will have an XX pairing on the 23rd chromosome and will be a girl. If the sperm contributes a Y chromosome, the result will be an XY pairing—a boy.
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The Earliest Development Zygote - The new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm. embryo - A developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs. Fetus - A developing individual from eight weeks after conception until birth.
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