Human Ecology II - Basic Ecological Concepts-1.ppt

Human Ecology II - Basic Ecological Concepts-1.ppt - Basic...

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Basic Ecological Concepts
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A number of terms are used to refer to the area in which organisms live Environment . A general term that refers to all the conditions that surround any living organism. The environment is commonly considered to have two separately definable, but interacting components: A non-living component, called the abiotic environment, and a living component, called the biotic environment.
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Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Fire
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Made up of all living organisms. Living is used to refer to any entity that can respire, reproduce, and which consists of organic (carbon-based) compounds which the entity can replicate. Living organisms are organized into reproductive units, called species (or sometimes populations ) The biotic environment
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The geographic distribution of every species is limited by both abiotic and biotic conditions.
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The greatest number of individuals in a species are found within the optimal parts of this range. Outside this range, survival and reproduction diminish; and so do population numbers.
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Abiotic Conditions also can limit overall biotic diversity in a particular area Water in deserts and savannas Sunlight and temperature in the arctic
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The impact of some species on an ecosystem is much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance. These are called Keystone species A keystone species is crucial in maintaining community diversity and organization
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The loss of Keystone species can lead to an “ecological meltdown”.
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