Study guide for Chapter 24-31.docx

Study guide for Chapter 24-31.docx - Study guide for...

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Study guide for Chapter 24-31 Intro to vitamins In the 20th century we have 8 B vitamins (Thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, biotin, pantothenic acid) 4 fat soluble vitamins Vitamin C Not all vitamins come from the diet Vitamin D is synthesized by exposure to sunlight by precursors in the skin Niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan Scurvy was found to be caused by a lack of vitamin C. It was found in sailors and they were treated with oranges, fruits and lemons. (James Lind) Beriberi is a disease characterized with fatigue, black gums, sore arms and legs. It was found in Japanese sailors whose diet consisted of polished rice. They were treated by adding meat, milk and vegetables. As early as 1500 egyptians believed the consumption of liver would cure night blindness All the B vitamins, Vitamin C and reduced vitamin K function as coenzymes or components of coenzymes that are synthesized from vitamins Visual pigment (vitamin A) Synthesis of hormones (Vitamin D) NAD/NADH reactions (Niacin) Antioxidants (Vitamin E, C, A) Prevent damage to cell membrane from 1 or more unpaired electrons Chapter 24 Vitamin B3 (niacin) Niacin functions in oxidation/reduction reactions and it’s involved in the catabolism of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids and ketone bodies Necessary for NAD/NADH Niacin is a precursor of NAD Niacin was first established as a vitamin in 1937 Niacin include 3 different forms: nicotinic acid, niacinamide, and nicotinamide riboside. p541 Niacin deficiency was first in 1762 in Europe by Casal as a condition of melancholia, crusty skin and extreme weakness. The condition was known as pellagra (angry skin) when exposed to the sun Symptoms for niacin deficiency: Include weakness, lassitude, anorexia and indigestion These are followed by the 3 D's: dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia Mental symptoms develop in untreated cases and include irritability, headaches, sleeplessness, loss of memory and emotional stability. Pellagra-like symptoms are also seen in chronic alcoholism, in carcinoid syndrome and some patients who receive certain medication
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High doses of niacin is a more effective elevator of high-density lipoprotein (good cholesterol) than any other pharmaceutical. This lowers cholesterol, triacylglycerols and very low density-lipoproteins. Tryptophan (amino acid) can be used to synthesize niacin Niacin Equivalents are used to express intake and requirements Niacin is widely distributed in animal and plant food Niacin can be found in poultry, milk, meats fish, legumes, peanuts, enriched grain products, some cereals Pre-treatment of corn with lime water releases much of the bound NAD precursor, tryptophan.
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