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BCHE4060-7.pdf

BCHE4060-7.pdf - vii B ééfigcéifi Course Code&...

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Unformatted text preview: vii B ééfigcéifi Course Code & Title : Bit Pei Time allowed $iefi Student ID. Not $5} Total Mark gefiiiriga-i- Not to be taken away fit 1 Eat l3 EUPege 1 02‘13 7k 3 ‘33. )l‘iiéfifrfi 7Fi$§fiEF H /% Ci: 1 k '? Copyright Reserved The Chinese University of Hong Kong LOFfiELOafi$Eigflfifi%e Course Examination 1St Term, 20l6-2017 BCHE406OESML Ap_p1_i_sEl..._1111!11i19919a; 11‘ as see 2 hours 0 minutes [92% Seat No: Open Notes Examination (notes limited to one A4-size paper). Students may write downlprint out information on both sides of the paper. SECTION A (40 marks): Multiple Choice Questions (1 mark each). Select the ONE best answer and mark it on your computer answer sheet with an HB pencil. Please fill the oval completely. Do not mark more than one answer. No marks will be deducted for any wrong answers, Multiple Choice Questions Not to be provided P.1— P.11 Course Code H B 393%: SCI-1134060 % 12 §(% 13 E) Page 12 of 13 SECTION B (30 marks): Essay Questions. Answer ANY TWO of the three questions in this section only (15 marks each). Write down your answers in the answer book provided. if you do all three questions or different parts of each question, only the first two questions listed on your answer book wiil be graded. Question 1 A. (9 pts) Describe how infection by influenza virus is recognized by the host immune system to trigger distinct innate and adaptive antivirai mechanisms to control spread of the virus and eventually result in clearance of the virus. B. (4 pts) What effect(s) does! do pre-existing immunity from a prior infection by one strain of influenza A virus (IAV) have on the host’s humoral response to an antigenically drifted strain of IAV? Explain your answer. C. (2 pts) What is the reason why influenza pandemics occur only with infiuenza A viruses, but not influenza B viruses? Question 2 A. (8 pts) Systemic chronic immune activation is considered as the driving force of CD4+ T- cell depletion and AlDS. i. Propose TWO mechanisms that contribute to chronic immune activation in AIDS patients, and ii. Propose TWO reasons why chronic immune activation may result in the destruction of the host's immune system and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). B. (5 pts) Allergic rhinitis occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air such as pollen. Measuring the level of antigen-specific igE in the serum is one way to diagnose allergic rhinitis. Expiain how ailergen-specific lgE contributes to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis including nasal itching, congestion in the nose caused by swollen nasal passages and facial pain? C. (2 pts) is there any protective ro|e(s) of |gE~mediated inflammatory responses? Use specific reason or example to support your answer. Course Codefi E $13,? BCHE4060 g 13 Wk 13 fifl’age i3 0H3 Question 3 A. (6 pts) Scientists have been trying to develop therapeutic cancer vaccines to eradicate cancer coils in patients. Despite considerable efforts, the development of non-viral associated tumor vaccines using shared antigens that are not specific to tumor cells has limited success. Give 3 reasons why it is so difficult to effectiveiy vaccinate against cancer by using this approach? B. (5 pts) Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV—t—lnfected patients has several drawbacks such as virus rebound following discontinuation of ART. lmmunotherapy treatments originally developed to harness the patients’ own immune system to fight cancers are now being considered as possible treatment options for AIDS patients. Pick an immunotherapy option for canoer, describe the cellular and molecular basis of how it works and explain how it can potentially be modified or directly used as a treatment to control HIV-1 infection. C. This question focuses on transplant immunology. During allograft rejection, alloreactive 008+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the recipients are activated to attack and kiil donor cells in the graft foliowing allorecognition. Answer the following questions. i. (1 pt) What is an allograft? ii. (1 pt) Presume that there are only two distinct alioantigen presentation pathways, which pathway(s), "direct" or "indirect" alloregnition or "both" isfare likely responsibie for activating alloreactive CD8+ CTLs to kill donor cells in the graft? You do 11__o_t need to explain your answer. iii. (2 pts) A third pathway, known as the semi-direct alloantigen presentation has recently been discovered. in this pathway, the entire intact aliogeneic MHC—peptide complex can be removed from the donor antigen—presenting ceil (APO) and transferred to the surface of the recipient APC to be presented to alloreactive T cetls. In this case, wiit recipient ailoreacfive 008+ T cells that are activated through the semi- direct pathway be able to recognize and kill donor celis in the graft? Explain your answer in writing or in drawing. - End of Paper - ...
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