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rural China ppt.ppt

rural China ppt.ppt - 20 40 1952 43 60 1956 1958 80 70 20

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土地改革与三农问题
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土地改革 20 世纪 40 年代中期至 1952 年冬,全国土地改革,把大约 43 %的可耕 地分给了 60 %左右的农村人口,摆脱了封建剥削关系,基本实现了农民” 耕者有其田“的梦想。 针对土地分散,小农经济抵御自然灾害能力不足等问题, 1956 年完成农 业合作化,建立农村集体经济。 1958 年至 80 年代初,人民公社运动。 由于急于求成,严重脱离了当时 的生产力发展水平。 70 年代末以来,家庭联产承包责任制,重新回到一家一户分散经营。两 级土地所有制:土地的财产权为集体所有,农民拥有土地的使用权 (承包 20 年) 面对小生产与大市场的矛盾,中国农业要迈向现代化,仍然需要制度创新 ,争取打破分散的、小规模的土地经营方式,走适度规模经营的道路。
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关于土地改革方向的争论 家庭联产承包责任制限制了土地资源集中,阻 碍了农业的规模效应。所以未来要建立土地私 有制,赋予农民自由买卖土地的权利 另一种观点认为农村土地私有化不会带来土地 的集中,也不会增加资源配置的效率。土地所 有权并不是决定农民投入农业生产的关键,更 重要的是土地面积、市场进入的可行性和农业 生产的利润大小。
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目前的土地改革 2013 年之后,农村集体经营性建设用地 可以进入市场交易 部分宅基地在“确权”之后,可以进入市场
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农村的社会控制 1949 年以前,主要依靠宗法组织 49 年以后的历次政治运动,尤其是人民公社这 种新型的社会组织形式使农村宗法组织被基本
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