IQ.ppt - Tests of Cognitive Intelligence Definition of...

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Tests of Cognitive Intelligence Tests of Cognitive Intelligence
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Definition of Intelligence Definition of Intelligence (1)The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the skilled use of reason (2) The ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (Webster's) What's missing?
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Definition of Intelligence Definition of Intelligence Most definitions of intelligence incorporate abilities such as: - problem solving - abstract reasoning - ability to acquire knowledge The overall IQ is the most common operational definition of intelligence in research.
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History of Intelligence History of Intelligence - - Relatively modern phenomenon - not tested until Relatively modern phenomenon - not tested until 1890 1890 - Before 1900, psychologists were not able - Before 1900, psychologists were not able distinguish intelligence from other human distinguish intelligence from other human characteristics characteristics - Early development of theories of intelligence - Early development of theories of intelligence and test construction started in England & and test construction started in England & France. France. - Galton & Cattell looked at individual differences - Galton & Cattell looked at individual differences - i.e., reaction time, measures of strength - i.e., reaction time, measures of strength
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Biological Basis of Intelligence Biological Basis of Intelligence - - Galton (1822-1911) - view of intelligence is that Galton (1822-1911) - view of intelligence is that it is a single general factor that is the basis . . - A greater ability to form neural connections - A greater ability to form neural connections which leads to a better general intellectual which leads to a better general intellectual performance performance (i.e. if we are generally intelligent, we are more (i.e. if we are generally intelligent, we are more likely to develop strong mechanical, musical, likely to develop strong mechanical, musical, artistic, and other kinds of ability) artistic, and other kinds of ability) - 2 Factor Theory - 2 Factor Theory
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Grouping Factors of Intelligence Grouping Factors of Intelligence - Thurstone didn’t believe that the Thurstone didn’t believe that the g g factor could explain factor could explain all variation across cognitive tests all variation across cognitive tests - crystallized (creative) vs. fluid (logic) intelligence. crystallized (creative) vs. fluid (logic) intelligence. - Thurstone theorized that there were common group - Thurstone theorized that there were common group factors present in different classes of tests. factors present in different classes of tests. - For example, a reading comprehension test and a - For example, a reading comprehension test and a vocabulary test show greater correlation than do a vocabulary test show greater correlation than do a reading comprehension test and a measure of reading comprehension test and a measure of numerical ability.
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