Introduction+3130.ppt - PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL...

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Unformatted text preview: PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT 3130 Instructor: Peter Papadogiannis, Ph.D. University of Guelph - Humber Can Psychological Properties Be Measured? A common complaint: Psychological variables can’t be measured accurately. We make judgments about who is shy and who isn’t; who is attractive and who isn’t; who is smart and who is not. Quantitative Implicit in these statements is the notion that some people are more shy, than others This kind of statement is quantitative. Quantitative: It is subject to numerical qualification. If it can be numerically qualified, it can be measured. Assumptions of Psychological Assessment Psychological constructs exist and can be measured Measurement is not perfect All procedures have strengths and weaknesses There are different ways to measure a construct Why is Psychological Testing Important? 1. Allows us to make important decisions about people – because there are comparison points. e.g. Early School Placement, College Entrance Decisions, Military Job Selections 2. Allows us to describe & understand behaviour as objectively as possible 3. Measures personal attributes 4. Measures performance Why is Psychological Testing Important? 5. Saves time 6. Most economical 7. It’s scientific Psychological Test Definition measurement instrument that consists of a sample of behaviour under standardized conditions -evaluated using established scoring rules. There are so many different tests – for a pilot selection may take an eye exam, a simulator test, an interview, an IQ test, Personality (clinical & non Some More Language Around Test & Measurement Measurement – is a set of rules for assigning numbers to traits, objects, attributes, skills, behaviour, etc. Assessment – is a systematic procedure for collecting information that can be used to make predictions about people. History of Test Development circa 2200-1000 BC. : Chinese introduced written tests to help fill civil service positions Civil Laws, Military Affairs, Agriculture, Geography, Horse back riding 1850 : The United States begins civil service examinations. 1885 : Germans tested people for brain damage – Wundt, James 1890 : Sir Francis Galton/James Cattell develops a "mental test" to assess college students . Test includes measures of strength, resistance to pain, and reaction time – Brass instruments. 1905 : Binet-Simon scale of mental development used to classify mentally retarded children in France. History of Test Development (cont.) 1916 : Terman develops Stanford - Binet test and develops the idea of Intelligence Quotient 1918 : Robert Woodworth – develops the Personnel Data Form to understand emotional stability/shell shock - Bring on Personality Testing 1920 - 1940 : factor analysis, projective tests (Rorschach), personality inventories (MMPI), & SATs first appear 1941-1960 : vocational interest measures developed 1961-1980 : item response theory and neuropsychological testing developed 1980 - Present : Wide spread adaptation of computerized testing. 21st Century Assessments • Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) • Other Technological Applications • “Authentic” Assessments • High-Stakes Assessment Characteristics of Psychological Instruments • Behaviour Sampling • Standardization • Scoring Rules Behaviour Sampling • It is a sample of behaviour. • It is not an exhaustive measure - it is too difficult to evaluate every single behaviour. • Attempts to approximate the exhaustive procedure. Behaviour Sampling • Does not require the respondent to engage in overt behaviour. • The test must somehow be representative of behaviours that would be observed outside of the testing situation Standardization • The behaviour sample is obtained under standardized conditions. • Each individual taking a psychological or educational test should be tested under identical conditions. For example, SAT administration instructions pertain to: Seating Arrangements, Lighting Conditions, Noise Levels Interruptions, Answering common questions • Standardization is vital because many test results are referential in nature: i.e., Your performance is measured relative to other individuals' Standardization (cont.) • Standardization reduces between subject variability due to extraneous variables. • easier to obtain with tests designed to be administered en masse. • Tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, which are administered individually, are less standardized. • The individual giving the test is an important variable. They take special training to standardize the way they give the test. Scoring Rules There are established scoring rules for obtaining quantitative information from the behaviour sample. Objective Scoring Rules : Most mass produced tests fall into this category. Different qualified examiners will all come to the same score for an identical set of responses. Subjective Scoring Rules : When the judgement of the examiner is an important part of the test, different examiners can legitimately come to different conclusions concerning the same sample of behavior. There conclusions should be similar, however. Good standardized psychological tests all have a set of rules or procedures for scoring responses to a test. Scoring Rules There are established scoring rules for obtaining quantitative information from the behaviour sample. Objective Scoring Rules : Most mass produced tests fall into this category. Different qualified examiners will all come to the same score for an identical set of responses. Example: What is the population of Canada? Example: Memory Test 5-4-9-8-6-2-8-1-2-4-8 Scoring Rules Subjective Scoring Rules : When the judgement of the examiner is an important part of the test, different examiners can come to different conclusions concerning the same sample of behaviour. There conclusions should be similar, however. Types of Tests Most psychological tests can be sorted into 3 general categories & 2 specific categories (typical vs maximum): 1. Tests where the subject performs a task. 2. Tests that involve observations of the subject’s behaviour. 3. Self-report measures Tests of Performance • Referred to as "Tests of Maximal Performance" • Participants are given a well-defined task that they try to perform successfully. • Participant must know what they must do in response to the task. Tests of Performance • The subject exerts maximal effort to succeed . • Performance tests are designed to uncover what an individual can do, given the specific test conditions. Examples -this Language proficiency, Flight simulator, Test for course Categories Behaviour Observation • Involves observing the subject’s behaviour and responses in a particular context. • Differs from performance tests in that the subject does not have a single, well defined task. • The observer can record duration & intensity Examples - An Interview - Examiner might observe children interacting or an individual having a conversation or some other social interaction. - Companies recruit observers to observe employee’s behaviours. Subject’s may be unaware they are being tested. Self Report Instruments - Participant is asked to report his or her feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values. When self-report makes sense: Self-report relies upon the test taker’s awareness and honesty. It is the best method to measure internal states - things only the person themselves can be aware of and judge. Provides an estimate Self Report Instruments (cont.) Clinicians include self-report measures as part of their initial examinations of presenting clients. Self-Report measures are frequently subject to selfcensorship. People know their responses are being measured and wish to be seen in a favourable light. (self-serving bias) People are not always good judges of their ability Items are frequently included to measure the extent to which people provide socially desirable responses. Common Applications of Psychological Assessments Personnel Testing Clinical & Research Testing Selection Placement Diagnosis Treatment planning and effectiveness Scientific Method Evaluation Educational Testing Instructional planning Selection Placement Classification Evaluation Self-Awareness Educational Testing • Intelligence tests and achievement tests are used from an early age in the U.S and Canada. From kindergarten on, tests are used for placement and advancement. •Educational institutions have to make admissions and advancement decisions regarding students. e.g, SAT, GRE, subject placement tests • Used to assess students for special education programs. Also, used in diagnosing learning difficulties. •Guidance counsellors use instruments for advising students. Personnel Testing • Following WW I, business began taking an active interest in testing job applicants. Most government jobs require some civil service examination. • Tests are used to assess: training needs, worker’s performance in training, success in training programs, management development, leadership training, and selection. • For example, at the Lally School of Management, the Myers -Briggs type indicator is used extensively to assess managerial potential. Type testing is used to hopefully match the right person with the job they are most suited for. Clinical & Research Testing • Tests of Psychological Adjustment and tests which can classify and/or diagnose patients are used extensively. • Psychologist generally use a number of objective and projective personality tests. Neuropsychological tests which examine basic mental function also fall into this category. Perceptual tests are used detecting and diagnosing brain damage. Testing Activities of Psychologists Clinical Psychologists – e.g., Assessment of Intelligence, Assessment of Psychopathology Counseling Psychologists e.g., Career Interest Inventories, Skill Assessment, anxiety, depression School Psychologists e.g., Assessment of Academic progress, Readiness for School, IQ, Social Adjustment Testing Activities of Psychologists I/O Psychologists - e.g. Managerial potential, Training Needs, Leadership Potential, group level assessment Neuropsychologists - e.g., Assessment of Brain Damage, neurological impairments. Forensic Psychology - intersection between law and psychology --needed for legal determinations e.g. Assessment for risk, competency to stand trial, child custody ...
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