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Using Psychological Assessments.ppt

Using Psychological Assessments.ppt - Introduction ▪...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction ▪ Psychologists make decisions everyday that impact people. ▪ Tests that are used to make these decisions affect science, public policy, law, and how groups are viewed and understood. ▪ It is the responsibility of individuals in the field of psychology and assessment/testing to ensure that the assessments we use are developed in Introduction ▪ There are thousands of possible assessments that people can give and take at their disposal. ▪ You will find millions of internet sites that offer online personality assessment ▪ Even Oprah offers them http://www.oprah.com/spirit/The-Are-You-Happy-Quiz_1 http://www.oprah.com/spirit/Who-Are-You-Meant-toBe-Self-Assessment-Quiz Guidelines for Developing Assessments 30 - 49 Look on the Bright Side More Often If you scored between 30 and 49, you're not miserable, true, but your sunny side could use a nudge out of retirement. Think about your strengths (keep thinking) and the activities you love; build more of your life around Abuses of Assessments • ▪ Goddard (1906) began testing people's IQ with an unstandardized tool - 378 residents and categorized them as Idiot (ma below 2), imbecile (3-7), feebleminded (8-12), moron (foolish) ▪ Goddard’s desire was to separate people out ▪ Believed feeble minded people were the cause of most social problems (thievery, laziness, alcoholism, prostitution, immorality). Abuses of Assessments • ▪ Went to Ellis Island, administered tests translated from French to English to Yiddish, Hungarian, , Italian, Russian, to farmers, labourers, who had just crossed the Atlantic. Then interpreted results based on French norms. ▪ Called for the colonization of “morons” to restrict their breeding. Further, he believed that many immigrants were feeble minded. ▪ Favoured “deportation for low IQ immigrants” but then also in a “humanitarian gesture” said we might be Abuses of Assessments • ▪ Soroka v. Dayton Hudson Corporation (owns Target) 1991 ▪ Job applicants for store security officer (SSO) positions at Target ▪ Applicants were asked to take the Psychscreen - a combination of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory. ▪ Both of these tests have been used to screen out emotionally unfit applicants for public safety positions such as police officers, correctional officers, pilots, air traffic controllers, etc. Ethics in Psychological Assessments The Joint Committee on Testing Practices (JCTP) was established in 1985 by the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) – disbanded in 2007 In 1998 The Joint Committee on Testing Practices noted that the most fundamental right of test takers is to be evaluated with assessments that meet high professional standards and that are valid for the intended Ethics in Psychological Assessments ▪ Given the widespread use of tests, there is considerable potential for abuse. ▪ A good deal of attention has therefore been devoted to the development and enforcement of professional and legal standards. ▪ The American Psychological Association (APA) has taken a leading role in the development of professional standards for testing – Also SIOP, ATP ▪ The most explicit and comprehensive guidelines using tests are the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing – published by the American Parties Involved in Assessment (1) Testing professionals: the test developer and publisher (2) Testing professionals: the individuals who administer the testing procedure (3) The user: the organization or practice that will eventually use the information to make certain decisions (4) The test taker Guidelines for Selecting Published Assessments ▪ Table of Specifications or a blue print are a must ▪ Select assessments based on a thorough review of the available literature – what needs to be measured? How to measure it? Who needs to be assessed? ▪ Begin this review by examining information and material provided by the test publishers – e.g., technical manuals, research studies Guidelines for Selecting Published Assessments Select assessments based on a thorough review of the available literature Useful references • • • Mental Measurements Yearbook Tests in Print Test Critiques References for Published Assessments Mental Measurements Yearbook ▪ Published by the Buros Institute for Mental Measurements ▪ Each listing provides descriptive information and additional information regarding the availability of reliability, validity, and normative data, as well as scoring and reporting services. ▪ Most listings include one or more critical reviews by qualified assessment experts. ▪ www.unl.edu/buros - also found in most References for Published Assessments The MMY uses content classifications do describe tests: 1. Achievement 2. Behaviour Assessment 3. Developmental 4. Education 5. English & Language 6. Fine Arts 7. Foreign Languages 8. Intelligence and Aptitude 9. Mathematics 10. Neuropsychological 11. Personality 12. Reading 13. Science 14. Sensory-Motor 15. Social Studies 16. Speech and Hearing 17. Vocations Qualification Levels Level A: There are no special qualifications to purchase these products. Level B: A master’s degree in psychology, education, or in a field closely related to the intended use of the assessment or certification by a professional organization that requires training and experience in a relevant area of assessment. Level C: A doctorate degree in psychology, education, or closely related field with formal training in the ethical administration, scoring, and interpretation of clinical assessments related to the intended use of the Guidelines for Administering Assessments ▪ Every step of the assessment process has its own important responsibilities. ▪ Select and use only assessments that you are qualified to administer, score, and interpret ▪ Provide information to examinees and obtain informed consent before administering any assessments ▪ Psychologists/mental health professionals are ethically and legally required to obtain informed consent before providing Informed Consent ▪ Obtained when a psychologist/mental health professional provides information to a prospective client about the assessment and services to be provided ▪ The client then has the opportunity to carefully consider that information and decide if he or she wants to receive the services. ▪ Participants must be informed about their right to confidentiality and their right to withdrawal without penalty. ▪ After getting this information, the participants Responsibilities of the Tester 1. Have competence in test administration, scoring criteria, interpretation and feedback. 2. Have an understanding of basic psychometrics and scoring procedures and be competent in interpretation, and apply scientific knowledge and professional judgement to the results. 3. Develop clear guidelines - be familiar with the context of use: the situation, purpose, setting in which a test is used, how much time is needed, equipment/resources. Responsibilities of the Tester 4. Have knowledge of legal and ethical issues related to test use. 5. Awareness of ethnic/cultural, language proficiency, developmental factors/variable that could influence the results. 6. Develop a sampling plan – where to collect the data, with who, how? Guidelines for Interpreting Assessment Results ▪ Use assessment results only for purposes for which they have been validated ▪ Use multiple sources and types of assessment information ▪ Psychologists are encouraged to use the results of multiple assessments when making important decisions that impact their clients. Debriefing Post-administration debriefing should: - Thank the participant! - Restate purpose of the research. - Explain how the results will be used - Reiterate that findings will be treated confidentially. - Answer all of the respondents questions fully. Responsibilities of Test Takers ▪ Responsible for preparing for the assessment ▪ Responsible for following the directions of the individual administering the assessment ▪ Responsible for responding in a manner that accurately reflects their characteristics and abilities Responsibilities of Test Takers ▪ In group testing situations, they are responsible for not interfering with the performance of others. ▪ Responsible for informing the professional if they believe the assessment results do not adequately represent their true abilities ▪ Should respect the copyright rights of test publishers & should not disclose information about the contents of a ...
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