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ScalesandNorms.ppt - Scales Transformations Norms Norms...

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Scales, Transformations, & Norms Scales, Transformations, & Norms
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Norms Norms Norm-Referenced Test : one of the most useful ways of describing a person’s performance on a test is to compare his/her test score to the test scores of some other persons or group of people. Norms are average scores computed for a large representative sample of the population. • The arithmetic average (mean) is used to judge whether a score on the scale is above or below the average relative to the population of interest.
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Norms (cont.) Norms (cont.) • No single population can be regarded as the normative group. • a representative sample is required to ensure meaningful comparisons are made. When norms are collected from the test performance of groups of people these reference groups are labeled normative or standardized samples.
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Norms (cont.) Norms (cont.) The normative sample selected as the normative group, depends on the research question in particular. It is necessary that the normative sample selected be representative of the examinee and of the research question to be answered, in order for meaningful comparisons to be made. For example: tests measuring attitudes towards federalism having norm groups consisting of only students in the province of Quebec might be very useful for interpretation regionally in Quebec, however their generalizability in other parts of the country (Yukon, Toronto, Ontario) would be suspect.
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Sample Groups Sample Groups Standardized Sample Standardized Sample - is the group of individuals on whom - is the group of individuals on whom the test is standardized in terms of scoring procedures, the test is standardized in terms of scoring procedures, administration procedures, and developing the tests norms. administration procedures, and developing the tests norms. (e.g., sample used in technical manual) (e.g., sample used in technical manual) Although the three terms below are used interchangeably, they Although the three terms below are used interchangeably, they are different. are different. Normative Sample Normative Sample - can refer to any group from which norms - can refer to any group from which norms are gathered. Norms collected after test is published are gathered. Norms collected after test is published Reference Group Reference Group - any group of people against which test - any group of people against which test scores are compared. (e.g., a designated group such as students scores are compared. (e.g., a designated group such as students in 3090.03 or World Champions) in 3090.03 or World Champions)
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Types of Norms Types of Norms Norms can be Developed: Locally Regionally Nationally Normative Data Can be Expressed By: Percentile Ranks • Age Norms • Grade Norms
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Local Norms Local Norms • Test users may wish to evaluate scores on the basis of
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