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test one textbook notes.rtf

test one textbook notes.rtf - Chapter one Mastering Modern...

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Chapter one: Mastering Modern Psychological Testing September 12, 2013 6:33 AM o Assessment is surpassed only by psychotherapy in terms of professional importance o Most psychologists are trained in clinical, counseling, school psychology program PHD programs: Broad training in both clinical and research applications PsyD: Focus primarily on clinical training and place less emphasis on research Clinical Trained psychologists to work with clients with more severe forms of psychopathology - more abundant and produce more graduates - use more projective personality assessments BOTH favor a integrative/ cognitive behavioural approach - psychoanalytic /behavioural orientation Counseling Trained psychologists that work with clients with less severe problems - use more career and vocational assessments - client centered /humanistic approach - more students with masters degrees School psychologists Trained in psychotherapy and counseling techniques BREIF HUSTORY OF TESTING : o EARLIEST TESTING: circa 200 bc: STTRIBUTED TO THE CHINEASE : tested public officials to ensure competence
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o 18th and 19th century : Carl frederich gauss: Made important contributions in astronomy and the study of magnetism - found observations to take the shape of a curve : normal distribution - best estimate of a stars location was the observations of each independent variable Civil service examinations Civil service tests were introduced to European countries - achievement tests used to aid in selection Physicians and Psychiatrists In both england and the us developed a classification system to help classify individuals with mental retardation and other problems Brass instrument era Wilhem Wundt, Francis Galton, James cattell etc - contributions to the development of cognitive ability testing - important development: move towards measuring humans abilities using objective procedures that could be easily replicated GALTON: founder of mental tests and measurements - established the MMP1 o 21st Century: Explosion in terms of test developments
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TEST , MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT : TEST o TEST: Test is a device or procedure in which a sample of individual's behaviours is obtained evaluated and socred using standardized procedures - test is a sample of behaviour : should be representative STANDARDIZED TESTS Test that is adnimistered, scored and interpreted in a standard manner -developed by testing professionals or test publishing compainers GOAL: ensure that testing conditions are as nearly the same as possible for ALL individuals MEAUREMENT: MEASUREMENT: Defined as a set of rules for assigning numbers to represent objects, traits, attributes and behaviours a psychological test is a measuring device - numbers are interpreted as reflecting characteristics of a test taker ASSESSMENT :
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Assessment: Systematic procedure for collecting information that can be used to make inferences about the characteristics of people of objects - assessment should lead to an increased understanding of these characteristics of people or objects tests are a tool of assessment
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