midterm W18 version 2 with answers.PDF

midterm W18 version 2 with answers.PDF - Midterm Version 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Midterm Version 2 .. IZI i: l. A. 9D kg individual is trying to rapidly estimate their BMR. 1What is their approximate BMR? a. fiver 250C! kcalr'd b. Between 24W—250l] kcah'd c. Between iflDfl—Zlflfl kcah'd {1. Less than 2000 kcalu'd 2. The various regions of the digestive tract have specific roles during the digestion of foods. 1Which of the following is correct?r a. The amylase enzyme is secreted in the mouth and begins to digest triglycerides. b. Bacteria, which are equally distributed along the human digestive tract. playr important roles in the fermentation of dietary fibre. c. Water is predominantly absorbed in the small intestine. d. The acidity of chyme is neutralized in the anti-um of the stomach before moving into the small intestine. e. None of the above is correct. 3. Which of the following metabolic pathways is considered to be anaholic? a. Glycogenolysis. b. Glycolysis. c. lGlycogenesis. d. Kreb‘s cycle. e. Pymvate dehydrogenation 4. Which of the following Haworth structures corresponds to the beta isoform of this monosaccharide [note that hydrogen atoms are not shown in order to improve figure clarity}? {image not supported) 5. Which enzyme is considered to be the first committed step for glycolysis? a. Hertokinase b. Phosphofi'uctokinase c. Glucoltinase d. Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase e. Pymvate kinase 6. Jane Doe goes to see her doctor complaining of dermatitis (flaky and itchy skin). The doctor performs a nutritional assessment and suspects that she is deficient in which of the following fatty acids: a. Butyric acid. b. Alpha-linolenic acid. 0. Oleic acid. (1. Linoleic acid. 7. During World War 1. there was considerable interest to understand an individual‘s nutrient requirements in order to properly develop food rations. Which of the following groups of individuals were used to establish food rations? a. Female adults b. Children 0. Male adults d. Pregnant women 8. Which of the following statements regarding carbohydrate digestion is incorrect? a. Sucrase is an enzyme that breaks sucrose down into one glucose molecule and one fi'uctose molecule. b. Carbohyde digestion begins in the mouth with a-amylase and continues until this enzyme is deactivated by the acidic environment of the intestine. c. Both glucose and fructose enter the blood via GLUTQ-mediated transport. d. The inability to digest disaccharides from dairy products is referred to as lactose intolerance. 9. The digestion and absorption of dietary lipids has several important features. Which of the following statements is false? a. Gastric lipase is secreted in the stomach and acts by cleaving the fatty acid from the triglyceride backbone. b. Pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides to release 2 fatty acids and one 2-monoacylglyceml. c. Bile acids are made in the gallbladder and secreted into the large intestine following the consumption of fatty foods. d. Once inside the intestinal enterocytes (absorptive cells), fatty acids can be esterified to cholesterol and packaged into ehylomicrons. 10. Aspirin is well-known to inhibit eieosanoid production. Which enzyme does aspirin inhibit? a. Cyclooxygenase b. Lipoxygenase c. Phospholipase A2 d. Cytochrome p450 11. Which of the following typically has only a minor contribution to total energy expenditure in humans? a. Thermomgulation. b. Basal metabolic rate. 0. Heat increment of feeding. (1. Physical activity. 12. Health Canada is establishing dietary reference intake values for nutrient X for the general population using the following data: EAR = 30 org/day, RDA = 40 nag/day and UL = 60 org/day. Based on these values, which of the following statements is correct? a. The standard deviation of the daily requirement for nutrient X is 10 org/day in this population. b. 30 mg/day of nutrient X will avoid the risks associated with a deficiency in 50% of the population. 0. Individuals in this population consuming 50 ngday ofnuttient X are at risk for toxic effects. d. The risk for developing a health problem will be at its lowest in individuals consuming less than 30 mg/day of Nutrient X. 13. The gross energy (GB) for each of the following fatty acids was determined using a bomb calorimeter: C14 (myristic acid). C18 (stearic acid), C18:l (oleic acid), and C183 (alpha-linolenic acid). Rank these fatty acids according to decreasing gross energy (i.e. highest GE to lowest GE): 8. C14, C18, C18:1, C18:3 b. C183, C1811, C18, C14 c. C14,C18:3,C18:1,C18 d. C:18, C18:1, C18:3, C14 14. The pig, cat. and dog are all examples of which digestive system? a. Simple system it. Simple system with functional coconut 0. Ruminant system d. Avian system 15. When palmitic acid (06:0) is completely oxidized, it generates the equivalent of: a. 131 ATP b. 119 ATP 0. 96 ATP d. 35 ATP 16. 1Which of the following statements is incorrect? a. High levels of cellular ATP inhibit the activity of glucolcinase. b. The initial breakdown of glucose in the cytosol generates ATP only through substrate-level phosphorylation. 0. During high-intensity exercise, the muscle produces lactic acid. d. None. because all of the statements above are correct. 17. The bomb calorimeter is tool used to estimate the amount of energy contained in a food sample. Which of the following statements is the most correct? a. The bomb calorimeter is used to measure the amount ofheat liberated by the burning of food. 13. The heat of combustion is equivalent to gross energy. 0. 1 gram of pure carbohydrate yields a heat of combustion of approximately 4 tea] d. Lipids are considered an energy-dense macronutrient because the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is considerably greater than 2:1. c. All of the above. 18. The proximate analysis is a crude method to determine the composition of a particular food or feed sample. Which of the following statements is incorrect? a. To obtain an estimate of crude fibre you must boil your food sample in acid and alkaline solutions. b. The ash sample obtained when extracting lipids will weigh considerably more than the ash sample obtained when determining crude fibre. c. An ether extraction allows you to obtain an estimate of the lipid component of your food or feed sample. d. The protein content is indirectly determined by measuring nitrogen content. c. Burning a food sample at 600 f"C will remove all organic nutrients. including digestible carbohydrates. 19. Which of the following events is not correct when talking about the regulation of glyocogen stores in the liver? a. Hexokinase is responsible for converting blood glucose into glucose-G-phosphate in order to create a concentration gradient that favours glucose uptake by hepatocytes. 1). Following the consumption of a meal, insulin levels rise in the blood and increase the activity of the glycogen synthase enzyme. c. Glycogenin serves as a scaffolding protein enabling glucose monomers to be strung together. d. In times when energy is required, glucose molecules are removed from glycogen and converted into glucose-6-phosphate where they can either be released from hepatocyles as free glucose or enter glycolysis to generate energy. 20. As we learned in class, fatty acids can be dealturated and elongated. People who have a mutation in FADSZ produce fatty acids that are not normally awn. For example, 18:2Ag'l2 (linoleic acid) can undergo one delta-S desaturation followed by one elongation. What would be the correct nomenclature for this new fatty acid? a. [83:93” h. 20:3A7'n'” c. 20:3a5-9-12 d. zones-‘3 21. Two individuals are having their basal metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. The non-protein RQ value for Person 1 is 0.74 and the non-protein RQ value for Person 2 is 0.88. They consumed the exact same amount of 02 in the experiment. Which of the following statements is the most correct? a. Person 1 is using more fat for energythan Person 2. 1). Person 2 has exhaled more C02 than Person 1. c. Person 1 has a lower basal metabolic rate than Person 2. d. All of the above statements are correct. 8. All of the above statements are incorrect. 22. During an overnight fast, which of the following metabolic pathways is not active? a. Gluconeogenesis b. Glycogenesis c. B—oxida‘tion d. Glycogenolysis 23. Bob is in a calorimetry lab, satisfying all of the requirements for measuring basal metabolic rate. He weighs 100 kg. Dining the experiment, he consumed 39 L of 02 and exhaled 28 L of C02. Given the available information, howr long do you think the experiment lasted? a. ~l hour b. ~2 hours 0. ~3 hours d. Not able to calculate this with the information available. 24. Which of the following statements is incorrect with regards to energy partitioning from foods? 3. Membolizable energy is the total energy released from the complete oxidation of a food sample. b. Determining digestible energy is especially important for ruminants. c. The heat increment of feeding corresponds to the energy required for the digestion, absorption. and transport of nutrients. d. Thermomgulation (i.e. energy required to maintain body temperature) is a minimal component of energy expenditure. 25. The following article was published by Mohiti-Asli era! in Poultry Science in December 2012. Based on the title of this manuscript, which analytical approaches do you suspect were used to determine fiber and crude protein cement in this animal feed? (image not supported) a. Van Soest analysis and Kjeldahl analysis. it. Southgate analysis and Kjeldahl analysis. 0. Van Soest analysis and Gas chromatography analysis. :1. Gas chromatography analysis and Kjeldahl analysis. 26. Which of the following statemenufassumptions is incorrect? a. Incorporating a marker to determine the digestibility of a particular nutrient assumes that the marker passes through the gastrointestinal system at a uniform rate. b. One can assume that the bomb calorimeter is perfectly isolated, thereby preventing the loss of energy in the form of heat. 0. True digestibility does not take into account the contribution of endogenous secretions. d. When calculating the Respiratory Quotient. you are required to assume that the amount of C02 exhaled equals the amount of C02 produced in various tissues by metabolic processes. 27. Which of the following dietary fibres is not considered “insoluble”? a. Mueilage b. Lignin c. Hemicellulose d. Cellulose Use this information to answer the next 2 questions. Jaime is the proud new owner of a cow and wants to better understand the composition of the food she plans to feed her new cow. She decides to take a small sample of the feed and analyze it. The wet weight of the sample is 600 grams. The subsequent proximate analysis revealed that the food sample consists of 50% moisture, 10% crude fat. 5% crude fibre. 4% ash, and 16% digestible carbohydrates. 28. What is the weight, in grams. of the nitrogen in this food sample? a. Lessthan 10 grams b. Between 10— 14.9 grams 0. Between 15 — l9.9 grams (1. Morethan 20 grams e. Cannotbe calculated 29. Jaime wants to know the digestibility of protein in the food she gives to her cow. Over a to day period, Jaime records total food intake for her cow (50 kg! day) and collects all the feces (20 kg ! day). She knows that the protein content of the food is 15%. And she also knows that there is about 1% protein in the feces. What is the apparent digestibility of protein in this food? a. 96.5% b. 97.3% c. 98.1% (1. Don’t have enough information to calculate this. 30. Which of the following is functionally most similar to the human stomach? a. The mmen of the cow b. The crop of a turkey c. The abomasum of a goat d. The cecurn of the horse 31. Which of the following nutrients contributes the most to a person‘s body weight? a. Fat b. Protein c. Carbohydrate (1. Water e. Mineral 32. Which of the following statements regarding eicosanoids is incorrect? a. Starting with linoleic acid, only one desaturation step and one elongation step are required in order to generate a fatty acid that could be used for eicosanoid biosynthesis. b. Both n—3 and 11-6 fatty acids serve as precursors for eicosanoid production. c. Eicosanoids produced in adipose tissue have an important function on the inflammatory slams in the liver. (1. Aspirin is a well-known anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits the critical enzyme in the cyclic pathway of eicosanoid production. e. Eioosanoids synthesized from omega-3 fatty acids are considered anti-inflammatory. 33. Which macronutrient provides the least amount of Calories according to the food label? a. Fat. b. Carbohydrate. c. Protein. 34. Which of the following statements regarding essential nutrients is correct? a. A nutrient can be considered essential if when you remove it from the diet there is an improvement in some aspect of health. b. Provided no permanent damage has occurred, the rte-introduction of an essential nutrient will resolve the symptoms associated with a deficiency. c. An essential nutrient can be produced in the body at a level sufiicient to meet the needs of an animal or human. d. A tolerable upper limit has been defined for all essential nutrients. 35. Using the delta system for fatty acid nomenclature, the 22-carbon structure docosahexacnoic acid (the imagejust below) can also be written as? (image not supported) a. 22:6 n-3 b. 22'6 a4.7.lo.13.l6,19 0. 22:6 A34.6-7.9-10.12-13.l5-16.18-19 :1. 22:5 Eli-9.12.1113 36. Which of the following statements regarding the human digestive system is correct? a. Bacteria in the small intestine produce short-chain fatty acids. b. Gastric glands in the stomach secrete bile acids. c. The surface area of the small intestine is greater than the surface area of the large intestine. d. The large intestine is the primary region for nutrient digestion and absorption. 37. Where in the digestive tract does the majority of water and salt absorption take place? a. The fundus b. The colon c. The jejunum d. The rectum 38. If a food sample is contaminated with nitrates and nitrites, which of the following measurements in the proximate analysis will have an error? a. Mineral content b. Crude Protein c. Nitrogen-free extract d.0nlyB&Cwillhaveanerror e.A,B&Cwillallhaveanerror 39. Fill in the blanks in the following sentence: fibre can the feeling of satiety and glucose absorption. at. Fennentable; increase; speed up b. Insoluble; decrease; slow down 0. Digestible; decrease; spwd up (i. Soluble; increase; slow down 40. Which of the following statements is correct when considering carbohydrate digestion? a. Pancreatic cr-amylase is able to digest u—(l,6}-glycosidic bonds. b. Cellulose and lactose are resistant to n-amylase digestion. c. Most disaocharides are digested by enzymes located in the brush border membrane of the large intestine. d. Fructose is absorbed by small intestinal enterocytes by SGLTl-mediated active transport. 41. This is W of the midterm exam. This question will provide me with a back-up should problems arise with the scantron. Please indicate which version of the midterm you have: a. Version #1 b. Version #2 Midterm Version2_Answers v mmummthr-I “000(50an HHHH “NPQI I I I I I I I I can») 14. 15. A 16. A 17. E 18. B 19. A 20. B 21. D 22. B 23. B 24. A 25. A 26. C 27. A 28. B 29. B 30. C 31. D 32. C 33. C 34. B 35. B 36. C 37. B 38. D 39. D 40. B 41. B ...
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