Exam 3 study sheet.docx

Exam 3 study sheet.docx - Exercise physiology exam 3...

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Exercise physiology – exam 3 Chapter 8 – skeletal muscle structure and function Define the following skeletal muscle connective tissue; epimysium, fasciculus, perimysium, endomysium and sarcolemma (cell membrane) Epimysium – connective tissue surrounding the entire muscle fibre Fasciculus – a bundle of muscle fibres Perimysium – connective tissue surrounding a fasciculus of individual bundle of fibres Endomysium – connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibres Sarcolemma – the cell (plasma) membrane surrounding the muscle fibre Identify the characteristics of tendon Tough ‘nonliving’ fibres which are metabolically inactive compared to muscles Bear tremendous force during muscle contraction Intramuscular network of connective tissue coalesces Tendons rigidly cemented periosteum Identify the anatomy of the blood supply to skeletal muscle Arteries and veins enter the muscle along with connective tissues and oriented parallel to individual muscle fibers Branch repeatedly into numerous capillaries and venules Sedentary 3-4 capillaries per fibre; trained 5-7 capillaries per fibre During max exercise, blood flow to muscle may increase 100x resting level The 3 factors that account for the 100-fold increase in muscle blood flow during exercise Alternate contraction and relaxation of muscle Constriction of arterioles and arteries to inactive areas due to release of adrenaline and noradrenaline Vasodilation of active muscles due to local metabolites o Decrease in O2 and pH and increase in CO2 and H+ Define sarcomere and describe the area therein to include; Z line, I band, A band and H zone Sarcomere – contractile unit of a myofobril and the smallest functional unit of muscle containing the myofilaments – myosin and actin Z-line – thin sheet of structural proteins that divide sarcomeres from each other and the attachment site for actin and myosin and marks the end of each sarcomere I-band – light regions of the sarcomere where actin filaments are primarily located, thin filaments either side of Z-line A-band – dark portion of sarcomere where myosin filaments are primarily located H-zone – centre of sarcomere o Where there is a portion of the myosin filament with no overlap of the actin o Thick filament only bisected by M-line which delineates sarcomeres centre, disappears during contraction Describe the sarcoplasmic reticulum and identify where the calcium is stored and the role of calcium in initiating the contractile process – where does the calcium bind
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  • Fall '09
  • delayed onset muscle soreness

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