Ch06Learning_and_Reward

Ch06Learning_and_Reward - How Did the Behavioral Study of...

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How Did the Behavioral Study of Learning Develop? Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Phobias and Addictions Have Learned Components Classical Conditioning Involves More Than Contiguity
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How Did the Behavioral Study of Learning Develop? John Watson’s “Behaviorism” rejected the Freudian and Structuralist focus on mental events and verbal reports “Behaviorism” promoted objective observation of overt behavior as the only valid indicator of psychological activity Human infants as Tabula Rasa
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Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Pavlov’s Experiments (see figs 6.3, 6.4) establish principles of “Classical Conditioning”: UR: innate response; reflex US: biologically relevant event CS: signal for US CR: learned response to CS
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Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Acquisition (see fig 6.5) Excitatory processes Extinction Inhibitory processes Spontaneous Recovery Extinguished response reappears after the passage of time
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Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Stimulus Generalization (see fig 6.6) Stimulus Discrimination Second-Order Conditioning
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© 1999 by American Psychiatric Association. Images courtesy of Anna Rose Childress, University of Pennsylvania.
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What is the Biological Basis of Reward? Self-Stimulation Is a Model of Reward Dopamine Signals Reward
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Self-Stimulation Is a Model of Reward Self-stimulation is a model of reward Pleasure Centers and intracranial self- stimulation (ICSS) (fig 6.19) ICSS acts on same brain regions as natural reinforcers and is linked to dopamine circuits
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Dopamine Signals Reward ICSS activates dopamine receptors Interfering with dopamine eliminates ICSS and other naturally motivated behaviors Nucleus Accumbens activation Secondary reinforcers rely on dopamine Drug use and addiction
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Phobias and Addictions Have Learned Components Phobias and their treatment Counter conditioning Systematic Desensitization CS/CR1 (fear) CS/CR2 (relaxation) Drug addiction: Coffee and Heroin
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0 0 100 100 200 200 300 300 400 400 500 500 600 600 700 700 800 800 900 900 1000 1000 1100 1100 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 hr 5 hr Time After Amphetamine Time After Amphetamine DA DA DOPAC DOPAC HVA HVA Accumbens Accumbens AMPHETAMINE AMPHETAMINE 0 0 100 100 200 200 300 300 400 400 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 hr 5 hr Time After Cocaine Time After Cocaine DA DA DOPAC DOPAC HVA HVA Accumbens Accumbens COCAINE COCAINE 0 0 100 100 150 150 200 200 250 250 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5hr 5hr Time After Morphine Time After Morphine Accumbens Accumbens 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 2.5 2.5 10 10 Dose (mg/kg) Dose (mg/kg) MORPHINE MORPHINE 0 0 100 100 150 150 200 200 250 250 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 hr 3 hr Time After Nicotine Time After Nicotine Accumbens Accumbens Caudate Caudate NICOTINE NICOTINE Source: Di Chiara and Imperato Source: Di Chiara and Imperato Effects of Drugs on Dopamine Levels Effects of Drugs on Dopamine Levels Effects of Drugs on Dopamine Levels
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Comparison Subject METH Abuser
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Ch06Learning_and_Reward - How Did the Behavioral Study of...

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