Bonner- Jihad in Islamic History copy.pdf

Bonner- Jihad in Islamic History copy.pdf - Jihad in...

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Jihad in Islamic History Doctrines and Practice M ICHAEL B ONNER P R I N C E T O N U N I V E R S I T Y P R E S S P R I N C E T O N A N D O X F O R D
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First published in France by Te ´rae `dre under the title Le jihad, origines, interpre ´tations, combats Te ´rae `dre 48 rue Sainte-Croix-de-la-Bretonnerie 75004 Paris English edition copyright 2006 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 3 Market Place, Woodstock, Oxfordshire OX20 1SY All Rights Reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bonner, Michael David. [Jihad. English] Jihad in Islamic history : doctrines and practice / Michael Bonner. p. cm. Includes bibliographical reference and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-691-12574-9 (hardcover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-691-12574-0 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Jihad—History. 2. War—Religious aspects—Islam. I. Title. BP182.B6513 2006 297.7 c 209—dc22 2005034086 British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book has been composed in Janson Printed on acid-free paper. f pup.princeton.edu Printed in the United States of America 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2
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C H A P T E R S E V E N Embattled Scholars As Islam became rooted in societies that were separated by vast distances, from the Atlantic coast of Africa and Europe far into Central Asia and India, these societies acquired characteristics in common. One of these was the phenomenon of men of religious learning (often called " ulama ' ) taking it upon themselves to per- form the jihad in person. This involved them, at various times, as legal functionaries or advisers, preachers, combatants, specialists in ascetic and mystical practice, experts in the history of the com- munity and its wars, or any combination of these. Their activity had a largely symbolic value: by associating themselves with the conduct of war, the scholars affirmed their own sincerity, together with the values of the jihad and Islam. At the same time, they showed a desire for participation in the here and now, in the real world of conflict and combat. One of them is " Ali ibn Bakkar, who went to live along the Arab-Byzantine frontier in the early ninth century. Once " Ali was wounded in battle, so that his entrails came spilling out onto his saddle. He stuffed them back, used his turban as a bandage to bind them in place, and then proceeded to kill thirteen of the enemy. Elsewhere, however, " Ali makes a less warlike impression, as when we find him sitting in the wilderness with a lion sleeping in the fold of his garment, and when we are told that he wept until he went blind. 1 This combination is fairly typical. Here, however, we 1 Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-safwa , 4:267.
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9 8 C H A P T E R S E V E N will dwell not on picturesque elements, but rather on the embat- tled scholars’ role in the growth and development of the jihad in several regions of the Islamic world. Their presence along the great frontiers will help us to map out the jihad, while giving us a more accurate sense of the origins, in the plural, of the jihad.
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