Biology Unit 3 Notes.docx - Biology unit 3 notes Chapter 10...

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Biology unit 3 notes Chapter 10: photosynthesis 10.1- photosynthesis: light energy to chemical energy The sites of photosynthesis o Mesophyll - the tissue of the interior of the leaf; where chloroplast is found o Stomata - microscopic pores in which CO2 and O2 enter and leave the plant o Stroma - dense interior fluid o Thylakoids , arranged in stacks in the stroma are filled with the green pigment, chlorophyll . Chemical equation o Reverse of cellular respiration o Chloroplast splits water into hydrogen and oxygen Redox o o Endergonic reaction that obtains energy from light Stages of photosynthesis o Light reactions o The Calvin cycle 10.2 Light reactions Nature of sunlight o Electromagnetic energy o 380nm-750nm visible light o Photons- particles of light Pigments o Absorb wavelengths of color, while reflecting others o Spectrophotometer o Absorption spectrum- Light Absorption X wavelength o Chlorophyll a- key light capturing pigment o Chlorophyll b- accessory pigment o Carotenoids- hydrocarbons that vary in shades of yellow and orange Exciting chlorophyll o e- goes from ground to exited state, when photon hits chlorophyll o Releases heat and florescence Photosystem o In the thylakoid o o Reaction center complex
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Holds a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules o Light harvesting complexes Surround the reaction center complex Pigments molecules bound to proteins o The reaction Photons are transferred from pigment molecule to pigment molecule in the light harvesting complex, then passed to the reaction center complex In the reaction center complex, photon is passed from the pair of Chlorophyll a molecules to the primary electron acceptor This is the first s tep of the light reactions The capture of the electron by the primary electron acceptor is a redox reaction o Photosystem II (PS II) and PS I P680 molecule- the pair of chlorophyll a in the reaction center complex of photosystem II P-700 in photosystem I Named so based off of their ability to absorb a pigment at that wavelength (nm) Linear electron flow o Photosystem II Light (photon) excites pigment molecules in the light harvesting complex Pigment molecules exited an electron from p680, creating p680+ Excited electron shoots into the primary electron acceptor Water molecules splits into 2H+’s and an oxygen atom These electrons are then supplied one by one to the oxidizing agent p680+ H+ is released into thylakoid space, and the oxygen atom binds with another one immediately to form O2 o Transfer Photoexcited electron is transferred to PS I via an electron transport chain Made of Plastoquinone (pq) A cytochrome complex Plastocyanin (pc) Exergonic fall produces ATP, by the generation of a proton gradient of H+ H+ is pumped into thylakoid space (this contributes to the proton gradient in chemiosmosis) o Photosystem I Here, like PS II, pigment molecules in the light harvesting complexes excite P700,
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