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review3ch5v1

review3ch5v1 - McCord/Vanden Bout CHAPTER 5 Exam 3 Review...

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Chapter 5 – Which Sections for the Exam? Chapter 5: All sections except section 5.11 were covered. Section 11 is an interesting section on atmospheric chemistry. Fundamentals Know how to calculate molar mass. Know your nomenclature (still). Be able to calculate amounts of reactants or products when given amounts of reactant or products – this is called stoichiometry – KNOW IT. See chapters 1-3 Know how to determine the limiting reactant and how much product it leads to. Be able to incorporate percent yield into a problem if necessary. All that is new is moles to P or V instead of grams. How to measure pressure Know the basics of how a manometer works and how a barometer works. Know how to calculate the pressure due to a standing column of liquid: P = dgh or P = ρ gh d and ρ (rho) are density. Watch your units here. Pressure will be in Pascals if you use kg/m 3 for density, and m for height. If the column is mercury, just get the height in mm and you’ve now got torr. Gas Laws Know the NAMES and the law associated with each name (scientist). Boyle’s Law: Pressure is inversely proportional to volume (assuming constant temperature and amount of gas, moles). Any units will work here. P 1 V P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 = constant Charles’ Law: Volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature (assuming constant pressure and amount of gas, moles). Any units for volume but remember, T must be Kelvin. V T V 1 T 1 = V 2 T 2 = constant Avogadro’s Law: Volume is directly proportional to amount of gas in moles. (assuming constant temperature and pressure). V n V 1 n 1 = V 2 n 2 = constant Combined Gas Law: Most books and people refer to this as Boyle’s Law + Charles’ Law which is P 1 V 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 T 2 (assuming constant n ) However, our book throw’s in Avogadro’s Law also giving: P 1 V 1 n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 n 2 T 2 = constant which is fine, except that this is really just the Ideal Gas Law in disguise. The constant that is defined by this version of the combined gas law is the Universal Gas constant, R . So by definition: R = PV nT which rearranges to give PV = nRT which is the Ideal Gas Law we all know and love.

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