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QUESTION 1 Socio-historical introduction to African languages The four characteristic features that typify a language as belonging to the Bantu language Family with examples from the chosen African language: 1. sign of gender, therefore prefixes assorted into classes Example Class 1 (umu-), 2 (aba-) 2. association of these classes into singular and plural Example Class 1 (singular), class 2 (plural) Up to class 10 singular and plural noun classes are regularly paired, with uneven numbered Classes usually containing singular nouns and the even-numbered classes Containing plural nouns. There are some exceptions, e.g., a noun such as amanzi‘water’Structurally appears in a plural class with the prefix ama- (noun class 6), but it is Uncountable and does not have a singular form. 3. class concordance Example Grammatical agreement (abantwana bayahamba) ‘Linking elements’ such as subject concords are needed to link nouns to other words in aSentence. Nouns generate these concordial agreement morphemes. 4. no sex reference in the correlation of genders Example Subject concords and pronouns do not distinguish between sexes (he/she): Class 1a: (female): umama yena, (male): ubaba yena (same pronoun is used to Indicate ‘she’ in the case of umameand ‘he’ in the case of ubaba)
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QUESTION 2 Structural overview of the African languages 2.1. (1) Economic factor (2) Prestige factor (3) Structure of the Bantu languages 2.2. Adaptation of borrowed words according to permissible sound sequences illustrated by Means of an example: The sound sequence has to comply with the so-called open syllable structure of the African languages, which is a consonant –vowel sequence. This often necessitates the insertion of a vowel called an epenthetic vowel to break up unacceptable sequences of consonants. Example (school > isikolo). Extra vowels may be needed such as at the end of a word. 2.3. Extensions are special types of suffixes that are inserted between the root of a verb and the final suffix. They are able to modify the meaning of a verb in a particular way, e.g. The applicative adds the meaning ‘do for’ or ‘do on behalf of someone or something’ to the basic meaning of the verb, e.g. buy > ‘buy for’ (applied extension -el-) thenga > thengela The reciprocal extension adds the meaning ‘each other’ to the basic meaning of the verb, e.g. see > ‘see each other (reciprocal extension -an-) -bona > -bonana