4-集成运算放大电路.ppt - 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.1 1941...

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第四章 集成运算放大电路
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第四章 集成运算放大电路 §4.1 概述 §4.2 集成运放中的电流源 §4.3 集成运放的电路分析及其性能指标 §4.4 集成运放的种类、选择与使用
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§4.1 概述 一、集成运放的特点 二、集成运放电路的组成 三、集成运放的电压传输特性
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一、集成运放的历史 1941: First (vacuum tube) op-amp 1961: First discrete IC op-amps 1963: First monolithic IC op-amp 1968: Release of the μA741 1972: Single sided supply op-amps being produced
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一、集成运放的特点 ( 1 )直接耦合方式,充分利用管子性能良好的一致性, 大量采用 差分放大 电路和 电流源 电路。 ( 2 )用 复杂电路 实现高性能的放大电路,因为电路的复 杂化并不带来工艺的复杂性。 ( 3 )用有源元件 替代 无源元件,如用晶体管取代难于制 作的大电阻。 ( 4 )采用复合管。 集成运算放大电路,简称集成运放,是一个高性能的 直接耦合 多级放大电路。因首先用于信号的运算,故而得 名。
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二、集成运放电路的组成 两个 输入端 一个 输出端 若将集成运放看成为一个“黑盒子”,则可等效为一个 双端输入、单端输出的差分放大电路。
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集成运放电路四个组成部分的作用 输入级 输入级 前置级,多采用差分放大电路。要求 R i 大, A d 大, A c 小,输入端耐压高。 中间级 中间级 主放大级,多采用共射放大电路。要求有足 够的放大能力。 输出级 输出级 功率级,多采用准互补输出级。要求 R o 小, 最大不失真输出电压尽可能大。 偏置电路 偏置电路 为各 级放大电路设置 合适的静态工作 点。 较多采用电 流源电路 ? 几代产品中输入级的变化最大! 几代产品中输入级的变化最大!
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三、集成运放的电压传输特性 由于 A od 高达几十万倍,所以集成运放工作在线性区时 的最大输入电压 ( u P u N ) 的数值仅为几十~一百多 微伏 在线性区: u O A od ( u P u N ) A od 是开环差模放大倍数 非线 性区 ( u P u N ) 的数值大于一定值时, 开环集成运放 的输出 不是+ U OM , 就是- U OM ,即 此时 集成运放工作在非线 性区。 u O = f ( u P - u N )
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§4.2 集成运放中的电流源 一、镜像电流源 二、微电流源 三、多路电流源 四、有源负载
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一、镜像电流源 T 0 T 1 特性完全相同。 B0 B1 BE0 BE1 I I U U C C B1 0 B 0 C R 2 I
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