SG20.pdf - Name Section Date 20 Girding for War The North...

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Unformatted text preview: Name Section . Date 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861—1865 PART 1: Reviewing the Chapter A. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 1. explain how the firing on Fort Sumter and Lincoln’s call for troops galvanized both sides for war. 2. describe the crucial early struggle for the Border States. 3. indicate the strengths and weaknesses of both sides as they went to war. 4. describe the diplomatic struggle for the sympathies of the European powers. 5. compare Lincoln’s and Davis’s political leadership during the war. 6. describe the curtailment of civil liberties and the mobilization of military manpower during the, war. 7. analyze the economic and social consequences of the war for both sides. B. Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. balance of power The distribution of political or military strength among several nations so that no one of them becomes too strong or dangerous . “They could gleefully transplant to America their ancient concept of the balance of power.” (p. 435) moral suasion The effort to move others to a particular course of action through appeals to moral values and beliefs, without the use of enticements or force. “In dealing with the Border States, President Lincoln did not rely solely on moral suasion. . . .” (p. 43 7) martial law The imposition of military rule above or in place of civil authority during times of war and emergency. “ln Maryland he declared martial law where needed. . . .” (p. 43 7) ultimatum A final proposal or demand, as by one nation to another, that if rejected, will likely lead to war. “The London Foreign Office prepared an ultimatum. . . .” (p. 442) loophole(d) Characterized by small exceptions or conditions that enable escape from the gen- eral rule or principle. “These vessels were not warships within the meaning of the loopholed British law. . .3” (p. 442) squadron A special unit of warships assigned to a particular naval task. “. . . they probably would have sunk the blockading squadrons. . . .” (p. 443) arbitration The settlement of a dispute by putting the mandatory decision in the hands of a third, neutral party. (Mediation is using the services of a third party to promote negotiations and suggest solutions, but without the power of mandatory decision—making.) “It agreed in 1871 to submit the Alabama dispute to arbitration. . . .” (p. 443) appropriation A sum of money or property legally authorized to be spent for a specific pur— pose. “He directed the secretary of the treasury to advance $2 million without appropriation. .. .” (p. 445) Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865 197 198 9. 10. ll. 12. l3. I4. 15. habeas corpus In law, a judicial order requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court at a specified time and place in order to determine the legality of the imprisonment (literally, “produce the body.”) “He suspended the precious privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. . . .” (p. 445) arbitrary Governed by indeterminate preference or whim rather than by settled principle or law. “Jefferson Davis was less able than Lincoln to exercise arbitrary power. . . .” (p. 445) quota The proportion or share of a larger number of things that a smaller group is assigned to contribute. “. . . with each state assigned a quota based on population.” (p. 445) greenback United States paper currency, especially that printed before the establishment of the Federal Reserve System. “Greenbacks thus fluctuated with the fortunes of Union arms. . . .” (p. 447) bond In finance, an interest-bearing certificate issued by a government or business that guar— antees repayment to the purchaser on a specified date at a predetermined rate of interest. “. . . ' the Treasury was forced to, market its bonds through the private banking house of Jay Cooke and Company. . . .” (p. 447) graft The corrupt acquisition of funds, through outright theft or embezzling or through ques- tionably legal methods like kickbacks or insider trading. “But graft was more flagrant in the North than in the South. . . .” (p. 448) profiteer One who takes advantage of a shortage of supply to charge excessively high prices and thus reap large profits. “One profiteer reluctantly admitted that his profits were ‘painfully large.’ ” (p. 448) PART II: Checking Your Progress True-False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immedi- ately below. 1. Lincoln successfully prevented any more states from seceding after his inauguration. 2. In order to appease the Border States, Lincoln first insisted that the North was fighting only to preserve the Union and not to abolish slavery. 3. The South’s advantage in the Civil War was that it only had to stalemate the war on its own territory, while the North had to fight a war of conquest against a hostile population. 4. The North generally had superior military leadership, while the South struggled to find successful commanders for its armies. 5. In the long run, Northem‘economic and population advantages effectively wore down Southern resistance. ‘ 6. The South’s chances for independence when the war began were actually quite good. 7. Although officially neutral, Britain sometimes engaged in acts that in effect aided the South. 8. Northern pressure forced the British to stop the Alabama from raiding Union shipping. 9. The Civil Wan—related crisis in U.S.‘-British relations threatened to expand into a war over Canada. Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 18614865 Name Section Date 10. 'Once the Civil War was over, the threat of US. intervention forced Napoleon III of France to withdraw his support of Maximilian in Mexico. 11. The Civil War draft reflected the North’s commitment to fighting a war based on the principle of equal treatment of citizens from all economic conditions. ‘ 12. Lincoln’s temporary violations of civil liberties were strongly opposed by Congress. 13’. The North effectively financed its Civil War effort through an income tax, higher tariffs, and the sale of federal government bonds. 14. The South in effect used severe inflation as a means of financing its war effort. 15. The Northern civilian economy was severely damaged by the war effort. B. Multiple Choice Select the best answer and write the proper letter in the space provided. 1. Lincoln’s plan for the besieged federal forces in Fort Sumter was a. to order the soldiers there to attack the surrounding Confederate army. b. to send about 3,000 soldiers and marines to reinforce the fort. c. to make a symbolic show of support and then withdraw the forces. d. to provision the garrison but not to reinforce it. 2. The firing on Fort Sumter had the effect of pushing ten other states to join South Carolina in seceding from the Union. causing Lincoln to declare a war to free the slaves. strengthening many Northerners’ view that the South should be allowed to secede. arousing Northern support for a war to put down the South’s “rebellion.” 9‘9 9".” 3. Among the states that joined the Confederacy only after Lincoln’s call for troops were a. Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. b. Virginia, Arkansas, and Tennessee. c. Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware. d. South Carolina, North Carolina, and Mississippi. 4. Lincoln at first declared that the war was being fought a. only to save the Union and not to free the slaves. b. in order to end slavery only in the Border States. c. in order to restore the Missouri Compromise. d. only to punish South Carolina for firing on Fort Sumter. 5. Which of the following was not among the Border States? a. Missouri b. Kentucky c. Oklahoma d. Maryland Chapter 20 Gz’rding for War: The North and the South, 1861—1865 199 200 10. ll. 12. The term “Butternut region” refers to a. the mountain areas of the South that remained loyal to the Union. b. the areas of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois that opposed an antislavery war. 0. the areas of the upper Midwest that supplied a large portion of the committed Union volunteers. (1. the areas of southern Pennsylvania and New York that supported the war but hated the draft. In the Indian Territory (Oklahoma), most of the “Five Civilized Tribes” a. supported the Confederacy. b. supported a war for the Union but not a war against slavery. c. sent many young warriors to fight for the Union cause. d. tried to stay neutral in the “white man’s war.” . Among the potential advantages the Confederacy possessed at the beginning of the civil War was a. a stronger and more balanced economy. b. a stronger navy. c. better-trained officers and soldiers. d. a larger reserve of manpower. . Among the potential advantages the Union possessed at the beginning of the Civil War was better preparation of its ordinary soldiers for military life. a continuing influx of immigrant manpower from Europe. more highly educated and experienced generals. the ability to fight a primarily defensive war. 9-9.7.” The response to the Civil War in Europe was a. almost unanimous support for the North. b. support for the South among the upper classes and for the North among the working classes. ‘ 0. almost unanimous support for the South. d. support for the South in France and Spain and for the North in Britain and Germany. The South’s weapon of “King Cotton” failed to draw Britain into the war on the side of the Confederacy because a. the British discovered that they could substitute flax and wool for cotton. b. the British were able to grow sufficient cotton in their own land. c. the British found sufficient cotton from previous stockpiles and from other sources like Egypt and India. d. the threat of war with France distracted British attention for several years. The success of the Confederate raider Alabama highlighted the issue of a. Northern inferiority on the high seas. b. Britain’s un—neutra] policy of allowing Confederate ships to be built in its naval yards. 0. the British navy’s ability to break the Union blockade of Southern ports. (I. the superiority of Confederate ironclad ships over the Union’s wooden vessels. Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 18614865 Name .- Section Date 13. Lincoln argued that his assertion of executive power and suspension of certain civil liber- ties was justified because a. it was necessary to set aside small provisions of the Constitution in order to save the Union. b. the South had committed even larger violations of the Constitution. c. during wartime a president has unlimited power over the civilian population. d. he had indicated that he would take such steps during his campaign for the presidency. 14. Many of the new millionaires who emerged in the North during the Civil War committed their‘personal fortunes to the Union cause. made their fortunes by providing poorly made “shoddy” goods to» the Union armies. . made their highest profits by selling captured cotton to British textile manufacturers. earned public distrust by secretly advocating a negotiated settlement with the Con- federacy. 9-9.7?” 15. Women made particular advances during the Civil War by a. advocating the right to vote for both African-Americans and women. b. entering industrial employment and providing medical aid for soldiers on both sides. c. pushing for women to take up noncombatant roles in the military. d. upholding the feminine ideals of peace and reconciliation. C. Identification Supply the correct identification for each numbered description. 1. Four Border States where secession failed but slavery still survived 2. The effective Northern effort to strangle the Southern economy and de—throne “King Cotton” 3. A ship from which two Confederate diplomats were removed, creating a major crisis between London and Washington 4. Vessel built in Britain that wreaked havoc on Northern shipping until it was f1- nally sunk in 1864 5. Ironclad warships that were kept out of Confederate hands by Minister Adams’s stem protests to the British government 6. Provision established by Congress in 1863, after volunteers ran out, that pro- voked violent protests in Northern cities 7. Slippery NOrthern men who collected fees for enlisting in the Union army and then deserted 8. Medical occupation that gained new status and employment opportunities be- cause of women’s Civil War service 9. Financial arrangement set up by the federal government to sell government bonds and stabilize the currency Chapter 20 Girdirigfor War: The North and the South, 1 861*1865 20] 202 10. Scornful term for Northern manufacturers who made quick fortunes out of selling cheaply made shoes and other inadequate goods to the U .8. Army 11. Civil liberty that was suspended by Lincoln in defiance of the Constitution and the Supreme Court’s chief justice 12. Organization developed to provide medical supplies and assistance to Union ar- mies in the field Matching People, Places, and Events Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line. 1. Napoleon III A. 2. Charles Francis Ad— B ams C. 3. Canada . D 4. Maximilian 5. New York City . E. 6. Britain . F. 7. Abraham Lincoln _ G. 8. Jefferson Davrs . H. 9. Elizabeth Blackwell 10. Clara Barton ‘1] Putting Things in Order American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the Civil War An Old World aristocrat, manipulated as a puppet in Mex- ico, who was shot when his puppet-master deserted him An inexperienced leader in war but a genius at inspiring and directing his nation’s cause Leader whose conflict with states” rights advocates and rigid personality harmed his ability to mobilize and direct his nation’s war effort Nation whose upper classes hoped for a Confederate vic- tory, while its Working classes sympathized with the anti— slavery North Slippery French dictator who ignored the Monroe Doc- trine by intervening in Mexican politics Site of cross-border raids and plots by Southern agents and anti-British Americans during the Civil War. Helped transform nursing into a respected profession dur- ing the Civil War ' Scene of the largest Northern antidraft riot in 1863 First woman physician, organizer of the United States Sanitary Commission Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 5. Enactment of military draft causes major riot in New York City. Napoleon Ill’s puppet emperor is removed from power in Mexico under threat of American intervention. The firing on Fort Sumter unifies the North and leads to Lincoln’s call for troops. The Alabama escapes from a British port and begins wreaking havoc on Northern shipping. Charles Francis Adams’s successful diplomacy prevents the Confederacy from obtaining two Laird ram warships. Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 18614 865 Name Section m Date“ F. Matching Cause and Effect 'Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line. 10. _ Cause . South Carolina’s assault on Fort Sumter . Lincoln’s first call for troops to suppress the “rebellion” . Lincoln’s careful use of moral suasion, politics, and military force The large Northern human-resources advantage . The North’s naval blockade and indus— trial superiority . The British aristocracy’s sympathy with the South . American minister C. F. Adams’s di— plomacy . Grant’s victory at Vicksburg . The class-biased unfairness of the Civil War draft Lincoln’s beliefthat the Civil War emergency required drastic action Developing Historical Skills Interpreting Tables A. F.“ Effect Split the South in two and opened the way for Sherman’s invasion of Georgia Enabled Northern generals to wear down Southern armies, even at the cost of many lives ‘ Unified the North and made it deter- mined to preserve the Union by military force Eventually gave the Union a. crucial eco» nomic advantage over the mostly agri— cultural South Deterred the British and French from recognizing and aiding the Confederacy Caused four more Upper South states to secede and join the Confederacy Kept the Border States in the Union Led the British government toward ac- tions that aided the Confederacy and an— gered the Union Led to riots by underprivileged Northern whites, especially Irish-Americans. Led to temporary infringements on civil liberties and Congress’s constitutional powers Tables convey a great deal of data, often numerical, in concise form. Properly interpreted, they can effectively aid historical understanding. The following questions will help you interpret some of the tables in this chapter. 1. Manufacturing by Sections, 1860 (p. 439). a. Compare the number of manufacturing establishments in the South and New England. Now compare the amount of invested capital, the number of laborers, and the product value of these same two sections. What do you conclude about the character of the manufacturing establishments in the South and New England? Approximately how many laborers were employed in the average Southern manufacturing establishment? About how many in the average New England establishment? How many in the average establishment in the middle states? , Chapter 20 Gz‘rdz'ng for War: The North and the South, 1861—1865 203 204 2. Immigration to United States, 18604866 (p. 440)). a. From which country did immigration decline rather sharply at the end as well as at the beginning of the Civil War? b. From which country did immigration rise most sharply after the end of the Civil War? 0. From which country did the coming of the Civil War evidently cause the sharpest decline in immigration? ‘ d. How was immigration affected by the first year of the Civil War? How was it affected by the second year of war? By the third? How long did it take for immigration from each country to return to its prewar level? ,3' Number of Men in Uniform at Date Given (p. 446)). a. In what period did the absolute difference in military manpower between the two sides increase most dramatically? b. What was the approximate manpower ratio of Union to Confederate forces on each of the following dates: July 1861, March 1862: January 1863, January 1865? c. What happened to the military manpower ratio in the last two years of the war? Chapter 20 Cir-ding for War: The North and the South, 18617771865 Name Section Date.” PART [11: Applying What You Have Learned How did the Civil War change from a limited war to preserve the Union into a “total war” to abolish slavery? What political factors affected Lincoln’s approach to the goals and conduct of the war? Why was he a more successful political leader than Jefferson Davis? How did careful Union diplomacy manage the Civil War crisis with Britain and end British llirtations with the Confederacy? How did the North and the South each handle their economic and human resources needs? Why were the economic consequences of the war so different for the two sides? What changes did the Civil War bring about in civilian society, North and South? How did it particularly affect women? V Some historians have called the Civil War “the Second American Revolution.” What was “revolutionary” about the political, social, and economic conduct of the war? Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1 8617»! 865 205 ...
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