Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Flow of...

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Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation I. Cellular Respiration: Aerobic Harvesting of Energy II. Stages of Cellular Respiration III. Anaerobic Harvesting of Energy Flow of Energy Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat . Photosynthesis generates O 2 and __________ ___________ In cellular respiration, cells use chemical energy stored in organic molecules to __________ ______ , which powers cellular work. I. Cellular Respirationa: Aerobic Harvesting of Energy Cellular respiration is a _______ process Is cellular respiration an exergonic or endergonic reaction? Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all consumed as fuel, it is helpful to trace cellular respiration using _______ . C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 6 H 2 O ATPs Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide 6 Water Energy O 2 6 + + + CONNECTION: The human body uses energy from ATP for all its activities The average adult human needs about 2000 kilocalorie of energy per day. This equal about 500g of glucose (1 gram = 4kcal) which can be translated to 5.35 x 10 25 ATP per day. About 75% of these calories are used to maintain a healthy body. The remaining 25% is used to power __________ activities. Cellular respiration is the controlled breakdown of organic molecules Energy can be released from glucose by simply burning it. The energy is released at once as ______ and _______ and is not available to living organisms. So how is energy released in cellular respiration? Cellular respiration is the ____________ breakdown of glucose. Energy is _________released in ______ amounts, which is captured by a biological system, and stored in _____. The _________ of ___________ during chemical reactions releases ________ stored in organic molecules This released energy is ultimately used to ________________. Chemical reactions that _______ ________ between reactants are called oxidation-reduction reactions, or _______ ________ In oxidation, a substance loses electrons , or is ________ In reduction, a substance gains electrons , or is ________ becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron) Redox Reaction
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Redox Reactions LEO says GER 6 - 8 In many cell redox reactions, the loss or gain of electrons is associated with loss or gain of ________ atoms respectively. In cellular respiration ____________ loses its hydrogen atoms and becomes __________ to ________. _____ gains hydrogen atoms from glucose and becomes ____________ to ________. Redox reaction in Cellular Respiration Glucose Heat C 6 H 12 O 6 O 2 CO 2 H 2 O ATP 6 6 6 Loss of hydrogen atoms (becomes oxidized) Gain of hydrogen atoms (becomes reduced) Electron Carriers The hydrogen atoms in glucose are not transferred directly to oxygen, but are instead first passed to ______ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which is an important _____________ in oxidizing glucose, _________ electrons, and becomes reduced to ________ . NADH represents stored energy that is tapped to synthesize ______. Becomes __________ Becomes __________ 2H 2H NAD NADH H H 2 2 (carries 2 electrons) How does NAD + trap electrons from glucose or other organic fuel?
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