第7章 垄断竞争与寡头垄断.ppt

第7章 垄断竞争与寡头垄断.ppt -

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第七讲 垄断竞争和寡头垄 中国人民大学商学院 梁雨谷
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目录 一、垄断性竞争的市场结构 二、寡头垄断竞争的市场结构 三、进入障碍和市场结构系列 四、博弈论和策略行为
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一、垄断性竞争的市场结构 一)垄断竞争的特点 垄断性竞争市场结构的特点: 卖者的数量和规模分布 许多小的卖者。单个企业的 行为不会被其它企业所注意 竞争性 买者的数量和规模分布 许多小的买者 竞争性 产品差异 略有差异,一家企业的产品 是其他企业的相当接近的替 代品。 垄断性 进、出的条件 进出容易 竞争性
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二)垄断性竞争短期利润最大化价格和产量 假定广告和产品属性早已确定,垄断性竞争模 型还假定所有企业的需求和成本曲线相似,因此,可 以假定有一个“具有代表性的”或“典型性的”企业。 从短期看,垄断性竞争企业的行为与垄断相 似。利润最大化产量发生在 QC 处, MR=SMC 相应的价格(有需求曲线 D 决定)是 PC
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Q P C SMC SAC 0 MR D A R P C B E F Q C
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3 、长期利润最大化价格和产量 从长期看,垄断性竞争企业的行为类似完 全竞争。由于进入行业容易,经济利润会吸引其 他企业进入这一市场。代表性企业通过使边际收 益等于边际成本而使利润最大,即 MR=MC 但由于新企业的进入会最终导致经济利润 为零,因此, P=AC 。因此,需求曲线和平均成 本曲线相切。
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垄断竞争厂商的长期均衡条件为: MR=LMC=SMC AR=LAC=SAC 垄断性竞争企业从短期看可以有经济利润,但 从长期看没有经济利润。
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Q P C D A R MR LMC LAC Q C P C 0 垄断性竞争条件下的长期利润最大
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4 、垄断性竞争的内容 1 )价格竞争 垄断性竞争的市场上,企业数量多且规 模小,企业之间很难形成价格协议,即使形成 了也很难维持,所以,价格竞争是垄断性竞争 市场竞争的主要内容之一。
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2 )非价格竞争 垄断竞争企业通过非价格竞争营造产品差别优势 ,推动企业的需求曲线右移,从而可以以更高的价格出 售产品获得短期利润。 品质竞争 垄断竞争企业在产品上引进新的、与竞争对手不同的 、能更加迎合顾客需要的特征,以吸引更多的消费者。 同时,避免在竞争过程中自己原有的客户被其他竞争对 手用降价方法吸引走,从而获得某种程度的垄断优势。 各种促销活动的竞争 通过用广告、品牌、 CI 等手段来形成一定的信息差和 品牌偏好,提高消费者消费效用,维持顾客忠诚度,从 而获取短期利润。
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二、寡头垄断的市场结构
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