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Chemistry 102 Notes 02072008

Chemistry 102 Notes 02072008 - Time(sec[C4H9Cl 100.082...

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Chemistry 102 Notes 2/7/2008 Rate is given by: quantity/time In chemistry rater are usually described in terms of concentrations: Rate=change in concentration as a function of time The symbol [] indicates concentration in molarity Rate=change[]/ change t Four factors affect reaction rates: 1. Physical state of reactants 2. concentration of reactants 3. temperature (T is proportional to kinetic energy) 4. catalysts- increase reaction rates without undergoing net change 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 0 + 0 2 (g) Explosive reaction of hydrogen peroxide very slow, unless catalyzed by Mn Reaction Rates Consider the reaction C4H9Cl (aq) + H20 (l) C4H9OH (aq) + HCl (aq) Average Rate- rate over a time interval For example:
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Unformatted text preview: Time (sec) [C4H9Cl] 100 .082 400 .045 Average rate= - (final – initial / time final – time initial) = .00012 M/s Instantaneous Rate= slope (or tangent) of kinetic curve at a specific time point Example: determine instantaneous rate at t= 600s Choose any two points on the tangent (initial and final, preferably spread apart) initial (400s, .042) final (800s, .018) rate= - (.018 M - .042M / 800s – 400s) .00006 M/s Initial rate- tangent to slope at t=0 = .0002 note: reaction rates decrease with time Rates can be written in terms of any reactant or product (as long as you use minus signs for reactants to make sure the rate of reaction is positive)...
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