Saul Kripke – Naming and Necessity.pdf

Saul Kripke – Naming and Necessity.pdf - Saul Kripke...

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Saul Kripke – Naming and Necessity Notes [email protected] 19/06/2003 Page 1 of 73 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. PREFACE ............................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 I NTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 H ISTORICAL B ACKGROUND .................................................................................................... 3 1.3 N AMES & R IGID D ESIGNATION .............................................................................................. 4 2. LECTURE I ............................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 I NTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 N AMING ................................................................................................................................ 6 2.3 M ILL ..................................................................................................................................... 7 2.4 F REGE & R USSELL ................................................................................................................. 7 2.5 A RGUMENTS AGAINST M ILL ................................................................................................... 7 2.6 Q UINE ................................................................................................................................... 8 2.7 C LUSTER C ONCEPT ................................................................................................................ 8 2.8 R EFERENCE OR M EANING ? ..................................................................................................... 9 2.9 F IVE D ISTINCTIONS ............................................................................................................. 10 2.9.1 Distinction 1 : “A Priori” versus “A Posteriori” ........................................................ 10 2.9.2 Distinction 2 – “Necessary” versus “Sufficient” ........................................................ 10 2.9.3 Distinction 3 – “Analytic” versus “Synthetic” ............................................................ 11 2.9.4 Distinction 4 – “Certainty” ........................................................................................ 11 2.9.5 Distinction 5 – Modality “de re” and “de dicto” ........................................................ 11 2.10 I DENTITY A CROSS P OSSIBLE W ORLDS ............................................................................. 12 2.11 C OUNTERPART T HEORY .................................................................................................. 13 2.12 N ECESSARY & S UFFICIENT C ONDITIONS FOR BEING A P ARTICULAR S ORTAL ..................... 14 2.13 R IGID D ESIGNATORS ....................................................................................................... 14 2.14 N AMES AS R IGID D ESIGNATORS ...................................................................................... 15 2.15 T RANS - WORLD I DENTIFICATION ...................................................................................... 15 2.16 F REGE , R USSELL & W ITTGENSTEIN M EANING OR R EFERENCE ? ...................................... 17 2.17 C ONTINGENT A P RIORI T RUTHS ....................................................................................... 18 2.18 U SING A CTUAL - WORLD D ESCRIPTIONS TO F IX THE R EFERENT .......................................... 18 2.19 F REGE & R USSELL ON N AMES ......................................................................................... 19 2.20 F REGE ON “S ENSE ......................................................................................................... 19 2.21 T HE S PECIAL C ASE OF π .................................................................................................. 20 2.22 S EARLE S C LUSTER T HEORY ........................................................................................... 20 2.23 C LUSTER T HEORY F ORMAL D EFINITION ........................................................................ 21 2.24 C LUSTER T HEORY - C RITIQUE ......................................................................................... 22 2.25 N ON -C IRCULARITY C ONDITION ....................................................................................... 23 3. LECTURE II ......................................................................................................................... 25 3.1 T HE C LUSTER T HEORY R EVIEWED ....................................................................................... 25 3.2 E XAMPLES OF P ROBLEMS WITH THE C LUSTER T HEORY ......................................................... 26 3.3 L EWIS ................................................................................................................................. 27 3.4 L ANGUAGES ........................................................................................................................ 27 3.5 A NOTHER L OOK AT THE 6 T HESES OF C LUSTER T HEORY ....................................................... 28 3.5.1 Thesis 1 ..................................................................................................................... 28 3.5.2 Thesis 2 ..................................................................................................................... 29 3.5.3 Thesis 3 ..................................................................................................................... 29 3.5.4 Thesis 4 ..................................................................................................................... 31 3.5.5 Thesis 5 ..................................................................................................................... 31 3.6 C AN THE C LUSTER T HEORY BE R ESCUED ? ............................................................................ 31 3.7 M ORE ON THE N ON -C IRCULARITY C ONDITION ...................................................................... 32 3.8 K RIPKE S T RANSMISSION T HEORY OF R EFERENCE ................................................................ 32 3.9 D OES K RIPKE HAVE A T HEORY ? ........................................................................................... 33 3.10 N ECESSARY & S UFFICIENT C ONDITIONS FOR R EFERENCE ................................................. 33 3.11 A RE I DENTITY S TATEMENTS N ECESSARY ? ....................................................................... 35 3.12 I DENTITIES B ETWEEN P ROPER N AMES ............................................................................. 36
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Saul Kripke – Naming and Necessity Notes [email protected] 19/06/2003 Page 2 of 73 4. LECTURE III ........................................................................................................................ 39 4.1 S UMMARY S O F AR ............................................................................................................... 39 4.2 E SSENCES AND DE RE M ODALITY ...................................................................................... 40 4.3 T HE E SSENTIALITY OF O RIGINS ............................................................................................ 41 4.4 N OMINAL E SSENCES ............................................................................................................ 43 4.5 N ATURAL K INDS ................................................................................................................. 43 4.6 S PECIES ............................................................................................................................... 44 4.7 A RE THERE D EGREES OF N ECESSITY ? ................................................................................... 45 4.8 N ON - EPISTEMOLOGICAL N ECESSITY ..................................................................................... 46 4.9 E SSENCE A GAIN .................................................................................................................. 47 4.10 E XAMPLES ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.10.1 Water as H 2 O ............................................................................................................. 48 4.10.2 Light .......................................................................................................................... 48 4.10.3 Heat .......................................................................................................................... 49 4.10.4 Lightening ................................................................................................................. 49 4.10.5 Summary ................................................................................................................... 49 4.11 R ECAPITULATION ............................................................................................................ 50 4.11.1 Singular and General Terms (Mill) ............................................................................ 50 4.11.2 Species Terms and Proper Names .............................................................................. 50 4.11.3 Properties and Natural Kinds ..................................................................................... 51 4.11.4 Science & Natural Kinds ............................................................................................ 52 4.11.5 Transmission of the Name of a Natural Kind .............................................................. 52 4.11.6 Primary & Secondary Qualities ................................................................................. 53 4.11.7 Objections to the Necessary a Posteriori .................................................................... 53 4.11.8 Kripke’s Response to the Above Objections ................................................................ 54 4.11.9 Qualitative Contingent Statements .............................................................................. 55 4.12 T HE M IND -B RAIN I DENTITY T HEORY ............................................................................... 55 4.13 T OKEN -T OKEN I DENTITY T HEORIES ................................................................................. 56 4.14 T YPE -T YPE I DENTITY T HEORIES ...................................................................................... 57 4.15 A NALOGIES : C- FIBRES / M OLECULAR M OTION VERSUS P AIN / H EAT ................................. 58 4.16 A NOTHER A NALOGY “W HAT G OD HAD TO D O ............................................................. 60 4.17 I DENTITY B ETWEEN B RAIN AND M IND CAN T BE C ONTINGENT ......................................... 60 5. ADDENDA ............................................................................................................................ 62 5.1 U NICORNS ........................................................................................................................... 62 5.2 “C AN
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