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chapter 4_prt2008.ppt - AGRICULTURE AND MAN PRT2008 Adibah...

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AGRICULTURE AND MAN AGRICULTURE AND MAN PRT2008 PRT2008 Adibah Mohd. Amin, Ph.D Department of Land Management Faculty of Agriculture [email protected]
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GENETIC RESOURCES GENETIC RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURE IN AGRICULTURE
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Origin and distribution of crop plants A centre of origin: a geographical area where a plant species (domesticated or wild), first developed its distinctive properties Domesticated ? Wild ?
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Domesticated Domestication refers to the process of taming a population of animals (although it can also be used to refer to plants) Domesticated: These species or varieties are bred and raised under human control for many generations and are substantially altered as a group in appearance or behavior
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Humans have brought these populations under their care for a wide range of reasons: to produce food or valuable commodities The earliest human attempts at plant domestication occurred in Asia : rye grain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rye
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Wild plants Wild: These species experience their full life cycles without deliberate human intervention
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Six independent centre of crop origin are recognized 1. Mesoamerica (Southern Mexico, and North Central America): El- Salvador, Guatemala Maize, beans, sweet potato, tomatoes, cotton, papaya, guava, peppers, sunflowers, strawberry, grapes, avocado. Sweet Potato http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:5aday_sweet_potato.jpg Avocado http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avocado Sunflower http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunflower
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Map of Mesoamerica http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerica
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2. Andes and South America (Peru, Chile, Brazil) Tapioca, pineapple, groundnut, cotton, papaya, guava, pepper, rubber, cocoa. Cocoa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoa _bean Peanuts http://merricksmanagement.com/i/index.php/peanut s Tapioca http://ajourneytobrasil.blogspot.co m/2010/07/culinary-experience-5- tapioca.html Pineapple http://www.etawau.com/H TML/Agriculture/Pineapple .htm Guava http://rasamalaysia.com/malaysian-guava- guava-bidor/
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Map of South America ( http://www.geographicguide.com/plan et/globe-south-america.htm)
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3. Southeast Asia Asian rice, peas and beans, yam, breadfruit, mango nutmeg, brinjal, cucumber, banana, plantain, coconut, orange, lime, grapefruit Paddy tree http://shw.amal5041.fotopages.com/18818109.html Nutmeg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutmeg Brinjal http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/brinjal Grapefruit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapefruit
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Map of Southeast Asia (http://melatiasiacollection.blogspot.com/p/about- asia.html)
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4. China Asian rice, soybean, green gram, orange, apricot, peach, tea, cabbage, ginger, ginseng, rape seed, chestnut, turnip, yam. Soybean http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean Cabbage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabbage Yam http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yam Chestnut http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chestnut
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5. Africa (Sahel Region including Ethiopian Highlands).
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