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Unformatted text preview: NAME (PRINT): Last/Surname ~ First /Given Name STUDENT #: SIGNATURE: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MISSISSAUGA JUNE 2013 FINAL EXAMINATION SOC100H5F Introduction to Sociology Jayne Baker Duration - 2 hours Aids: None The University of Toronto Mississauga and you, as a student, share a commitment to academic integrity. You are reminded that you may be charged with an academic offence for possessing any unauthorized aids during the writing of an exam, including but not limited to any electronic devices with storage, such as cell phones, pagers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), iPods, and MP3 players. Unauthorized calculators and notes are also not permitted. Do not have any of these items in your possession in the area of your desk. Please turn the electronics off and put all unauthorized aids with your belongings at the front of the room before the examination begins. if any of these items are kept with you during the writing of your exam, you may be charged with an academic offence. A typical penalty may cause you to fail the course. Please note, you CANNOT petition to re-write an examination once the exam has begun. TOTAL: 35 marks Scantron Instructions (75 questions * 0.33 = 25 marks): Ensure your Scantron is marked accurately! Follow these instructions: 0 You must write in pencil 0 Fill in only one corresponding answer bubble per question 0 Fill in your answer carefully; unerased answers, random pencil marks, and multiple filled—in bubbles will be marked as incorrect 0 Print your name clearly 0 Print your student number clearly 0 Fill in the bubbles corresponding with your student number 0 There is no version/ form code associated with this exam Short Answer Instructions (2 questions * 5 = 10 marks): 0 Answer any TWO of the following four questions 0 You may write in pencil or pen 0 Answer within the exam booklet 0 Be sure to indicate the number of question you are answering 0 Use full sentences, not point-form notes 0 Double-space your answer (i.e.: write on every other line) 0 Each answer should be approximately 5 sentences Page i of 14 Scantron Instructions: Ensure your Scantron 1s marked accurately! Follow these instructions. 9‘.“ 9‘?” P‘PP‘?’ 9.0.693» P 9‘.“ 9‘.” 0 You must write in pencil 0 Fill in only one corresponding answer bubble per question 0 Fill in your answer carefully; unerased answers, random pencil marks, and multiple filled-in bubbles will be marked as incorrect 0 Print your name clearly 0 Print your student number clearly 0 Fill in the bubbles corresponding with your student number 0 There is no version/form code associated with this exam What theory assumes that people are basically “bad” and that special circumstances are required to make them “good?” labelling theory control theory authoritarian theory subcultural theory Community colleges have a disproportionate number of students from lower socioeconomic classes, are often located in neighbourhoods where disadvantaged students live, have lower tuition fees than universities, and have graduates who find relatively good and steady jobs. Why do functionalists point out all these facts? to emphasize the fact that education works as the main social equalizer to confirm the functional benefits of the community-college system to illuminate the social disadvantages in Canada’s educational system to confirm that socialist ideals are being met Increased life expectancy in Canada has had which of the following effects? Death rates have gone down. Heart disease and cancer are now less prevalent. Degenerative conditions have more time to develop. Accidents have become the leading cause of death. Which of the following factors suggests that market forces on their own cannot solve environmental problems because prices are often artificially supported? Consumers demand corporate responsibility and adopt no personal responsibility. Prices do not generate the signals that prompt necessary changes in consumer behaviour. Consumers lobby the govemment instead of changing consumption patterns. Consumers are less likely to take remedial action in relation to price increases. Page 2 of 14 5" 99.0“!” P‘PP‘PN 99.0“!” 91-99er 10. 91-9 .crs» . ' V As discussed in lecture, what percentage of students from the elite high schools Private School A and Private School B attend a university upon graduation? 55% 75% 90% 100% What is the main argument in Coates and Morrison’s “Million Dollar Promise” article on university education from Maclean ’5 magazine, discussed in lecture? Employers continue to discriminate on the basis of gender, as indicated by men’s higher earnings despite the same degree. A university education guarantees an annual salary of around $42,000. The labour market payoff of a university degree depends on the field of study. Some female university degree-holders are financially no better off than female high school graduates. What belief about the function of prison is implied by current calls to “get tough on crime”? Prison is a means of deterrence. Prison is a means of incapacitation. Prison is a means of moral recovery. Prison is a means of rehabilitation. Biomedical advances have increased life expectancy, especially through vaccines against infectious diseases. However, the creation of what system has been more important than biomedical advances in improving health and ensuring long life? the health care system ‘ the medical care system the public health system the government welfare system As discussed in lecture, the conclusion of the study “Husbands who do housework have less sex” is: Husbands who do housework have lower marital satisfaction. The division of household labour and sexual activity are both aspects of gendered sexual scripts. Husbands who do less housework also tended to be sexually coercive. Husbands who do housework lack a strong desire for sex because they are very tired from the housework. Research tracking of marriage, divorce, and child-bearing trends shows which of the following about the nuclear family ideal? It was realized only by a very small minority of families in Canada during the 1950s. It was typical only through the postwar years of the 1950s. It Was destroyed by the counterculture revolution of the 1960s. ' It has been the ideal family form for centuries in Canada. Page 3 of 14 11. ‘ a. b. c. d. 12. 9‘9 9‘? l3. P-PP‘!” 14. 999‘!» 15. 999‘!” 16. 9‘9 9‘9 . i ' A conflict theorist would say all of the following about the education system except: People who have more power have greater success in the education system. There are obstacles in place preventing each person fiom accessing higher education. The potential benefits of schooling are distributed differently depending on your socioeconomic status (SES). , . Elementary and secondary school teachers have lower expectations for students fiom a low SES background. As discussed in lecture, which of the following is an example of a long-term, intended media effect? Advertizing during Saturday morning cartoons. An anti-drug campaign. Aggression after playing first-person shooter video games. De-sensitization to sexual imagery. The idea that immediate pains and pressures may lead to crime is an explanation put forward by: control theory strain theory social disorganization theory learning theory Which of the following terms did sociologist Charles Perrow coin in recognition of the fact that the complexity of modern technologies ensures they will inevitably fail, although in unpredictable ways? inexplicable occurrence human error the two faces of technology normal accident Once SARS had spread to Canada, where did most people contract the disease? while travelling on mass transit in the workplace in a hospital in a classroom Much research shows that divorce has a long-term, adverse impact on children. Why is a great deal of this research unrepresentative? It is based on families that have at least one alcoholic parent. It is based on families that are multiethnic. It is based on families that seek psychological counselling. It is based on families that have not sought clinical counselling. Page 4 of 14 17. 999‘.” 18. 9209‘? 19. 9‘.“ P‘?’ 999‘!” Why doesn’t sociology say anything about the truth or falsity of any given religion? Sociology is an atheist discipline. ' ' Questions of faith are not sociological. It creates too much controversy. Sociologists do not study faith. ‘ According to the textbook, several sets of social forces most influence whom you are likely to fall in love with and marry. Which of the following is one of these factors? gendered preference factors physical attraction factors like and dislike factors demographic factors As discussed in lecture, what is the key difference between hegemony and domination? Aggression. Good will. Force. Technology. . What is the term used for mild sanctions against deviance, such as raising eyebrows? formal punishment stigmatization informal punishment social sanctions . After divorce, what is the most common economic outcome for the former husband and wife? The husband’s income declines and the wife’s increases. The husband’s income rises and the wife’s declines. The wife’s income declines and then rises, while the husband’s rises and then declines. The wife’s income rises and then declines, while the husband’s declines and then rises. . What was the main point of Max Weber’s study of Protestantism and the development of capitalism? that religion slows the development of capitalism that capitalism developed where the Protestant ethic took hold that the only consequence of the Protestant work ethic was the enrichment of Protestants that ideas do not influence the development of capitalism . What term is used for the number of years of school a person completes? educational achievement educational attainment mass schooling professionalization Page 5 of 14 24. 999‘.” Tony always speaks about his religious beliefs amongst his friends. One day Camila gets mad at him, she says “Tony! Religion is a private matter. I am religious as well, but I don't preach to everyone about it. Please keep your beliefs to yourself.” Camila's statement would_ support what thesis? secularization thesis religiosity thesis revised secularization thesis collective conscience thesis . What term was coined by German sociologist Ulrich Beck for a situation in which technology distributes danger among all categories of people, though unevenly? technological fix human-technology interface risk society technological environment . The move away from religion beginning in the 16th century is associated with what? Government control The rise of science An increase in charismatic authority Urbanization . According to the textbook, which of the following types of crimes is least likely to be reported to the police? victimless crimes street crimes white-collar crimes legislative crimes . Which of the following is not an example of the relationship between income inequality and health? The relationship between educational attainment, age, and cognitive delays in children. Environmental racism. The effect of Windsor’s cross-border trade on childhood health, as discussed in Toxic Trespass. The comparison made between two postal code areas in Hamilton, Ontario. Page 6 of 14 29. 9‘99“!” 9.0.691» 99.0“!” 34. a. b. c. d. Which of the following 1s true about the relationship between educational attainment, age, and cognitive delays 1n children, as discussed in lecture? A woman with a bachelor’ s degree giving birth between the age of 40 to 44 has about the same likelihood of her child developing a cognitive delay as a woman age 25-29 without a bachelor’s degree. On average, age of the mother 1s the most critical factor 1n the likelihood of childhood cognitive delays, regardless of educational attainment. The educational attainment of the mother is more important to infant mortality than prenatal nutrition. Because most of the women giving birth above the age of 45 hold bachelor’s degrees, sociologists emphasize educational attainment more than income levels. . How do sociologists generally categorize religious groups? churches, sects, or cults secularized or non-secularized monotheistic, polytheistic, or pantheistic charismatic or routinized . When a husband works, a wife works, and they have at least one child, this is what type of family? Nuclear family. Traditional nuclear family. Post-war family. Modern family. . Americans spend nearly twice as much per person on health care as Japan, and nearly 60 percent more than Canada, yet Americans are not as healthy as the Japanese or Canadians. Which of the following is not a reason why this is the case? The gap between rich and poor is greater in the United States. The American health care system is modelled more like a business. The American government does not regulate prescription drugs to the same extent. America has a shortage of nurses and doctors, so procedures cost more. . According to the 2012 Gallup Poll “Religiosity and Atheism Index”: modernization has not lead to a decline in religiosity religiosity decreases with lower levels of income religiosity has no relationship to income wealthy countries have high levels of religiosity What is the definition of genetic pollution? . Deliberate or accidental exposure to substances that alter a person’s genetic composition (DNA). The production of hybrid plants that do not produce viable seeds. The health and ecological dangers that may result from artificially splicing genes of different species. The increase in antibiotic-resistant germs that has resulted from an overuse of antibiotic medications. Page 7 of 14 .4 . ..t 35. Members of the Dene Nation were hired to transport uranium from the first uranium mine trekking it overland in burlap bags. Information about the dangers of exposure to uranium was withheld and no protections were given. Which of the following is this case an example of? a. prejudice and discrimination b. industrial espionage , c. environmental racism d. cultural genocide 36. Which of the following best describes a sanction? a. an action indicating disapproval of deviance b. deviance that breaks a law c. a departure from a norm that evokes a negative reaction from others d. a norm stipulated and enforced by government bodies 37. Functionalists say that the decline of the nuclear family is responsible for increased rates of crime, illegal drug use, and poverty. Conflict theorists challenge this view, saying which of the following about the emergence of new family forms? a. It results in an increase of spousal abuse. b. It can improve the way people live. c. It causes divorce rates to decline. d. It increases the fertility rate. 38. Parents of low-income children are least likely to have attended university. Due to this, what factor or factors decrease(s) the chances of success for their children in both school and the paid labour force? a. lack of cultural capital b. lack of personal experience and achievement c. lack of time for cultural pursuits d. lack of competitive edge and energy 39. Which of the following is best described as selling genetic material without compensating donors under the legal protection of rights to intellectual property? bi0piracy corporate research research economizing industrialized research 999‘?” 40. In what type of family do a mother, father, children, and grandparents all live in the same household? an extended traditional nuclear family a nuclear family a blended family an extended family $1.057.” 41. Which of the following terms applies to people who are negatively evaluated because of a marker that distinguishes them from others? a. nonconformist b. stigmatized c. noncompliant d. deviant Page 8 of 14 42. If you are a member of a small group, or a geographically dispersed one, which of the following are you more likely to ‘do? . . a. get divorced b. marry inside your group c. stay single d. marry outside your group 43. If a couple belongs to a lower social class and has a lower level of education, which of the following is more likely? a. The couple will have fewer children. b. The couple will have more children. c. The couple will have a happy man'iage. d. The marriage will be unhappy and unstable. 44. Statistics Canada tells us that what percentage of maniages that have taken place in recent years will end in divorce? a. 75 percent b. 45 percent c. 50 percent CI. 38 percent 45. Whether an act is considered deviant or criminal depends not only on the perceived harrnfulness of the act, but also on which of the following? a. Whether the deviance was committed by a person with high socioeconomic status (SES). b. The degree of public agreement that the act is deviant. c. Whether there was police or community surveillance of the deviant behaviour. d. Whether the deviance was intentional. 46. Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the family according to the functionalist perspective? ' a. socialization b. economic cooperation c. assimilation d. reproduction 47. What term is used for the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime, assuming that she has the same number of children as the average for her age cohort? crude birth rate family fertility rate marriage-based fertility rate total fertility rate 9.9 9"?” 48. Among some Inuit communities at the beginning of the twentieth century, allowing newborns to freeze to death was not considered a deviant act. This illustrates that acts considered immoral today were acceptable in which of the following settings? in another social context among hunters among isolated peoples incertain subcultures 999‘.” Page 9 of 14 49. In the early 1900s, Coca-Cola contained a derivative of cocaine. Why is cocaine now an illegal Because social definitions depend on what is profitable. a. b. Because it is no longer controlled by business organizations. c. Because its perceived harmfulness has changed. d. All of the above are true. 50. Which of the following is a shortcoming of official crime statistics, according to the textbook? a. Authorities and the public decide which crime acts to report and which to ignore. b. The reporting method is out of date, so modern crimes like Internet fraud are missed. c. Only crimes that exceed a certain level of damage are considered in statistics. d. Statistical reports are irrelevant once they are finally published, because of a time lag between data collection and reporting. 51. Which of the following is one of the reasons Canada’s crime rate is falling? a. The number of young men in the population has declined. b. The economic decline of the 19905 caused young men to be unemployed. c. Decreased business surveillance of shoplifters has led to fewer crimes being reported. d. Communities have centralized crime control. 52. According to the text, mate selection was historically based mainly on an evaluation of which of the following? religious loyalties economic benefits romantic feelings social functions 9-??? 53. What term did Durkheim use in relation to watching and being involved in the Stanley Cup playoffs, and how it generates a sense of being a part of something bigger than we are? a. collective unconscious b. anomie c. the profane d. collective effervescence 54. Which of the following occurs when collective celebrations are at their peak? a. social integration declines b. religiosity stays the same c. suicide rates drop d. personal anxiety is at its highest 55. Which of the following is a cause of gender inequality in health and health care? a. Women undergo more kidney transplants and cardiac procedures than men. b. Women live longer than men and therefore experience less chronic illness. ‘c. Women are excluded from most medical research. d. There is gender bias in medical treatment. 56. When people gain control and authority over their occupation and their clients, which of the following processes is occurring? a. labour market magnification b. the norm of signification c. occupational inflation d. professionalization Page 10 of 14 ‘ 57...
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