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PDF Lecture 13 - Problem Solving.pdf

PDF Lecture 13 - Problem Solving.pdf - Thinking Problem...

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1 Thinking & Problem Solving n Thinking definition: n A set of operations applied to mental representations n What are “representations”? n The very basis or “stuff” of thought n “re-presenting” the outer world in the inner world n We will examine in more detail a bit later
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Problem Solving: Definition A problem exists when you want to get from ± here ² (a knowledge state) to ± there ² (another knowledge state) and the path is not immediately obvious.
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3 What are problems? n Everyday experiences n How to get to the airport? n How to study for a quiz, complete a paper, and finish a lab before recitation? n How to get a boyfriend to be an ex-boyfriend? n Domain specific problems n Physics or math or engineering problems n Puzzles/games n Crossword, anagrams, chess
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A Partial Problem Typology n Well-defined vs. ill-defined problems: Problems where the goal or solution is recognizable--where there is a right answer (ex. a math or physics problem) vs. problems where there is no "right" answer but a range of more or less acceptable answers. n Knowledge rich vs. knowledge lean problems: problems whose solution depends on specialized knowledge. n Insight vs. non-insight problems--those solved "all of a sudden" vs. those solved more incrementally-- in a step by step fashion. 4
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5 Contents of Memory Does the contents of memory influence how easy a problem is? Knowledge rich problems Require domain knowledge to answer, physics problems Knowledge lean problems Can use a general problem solving method to solve, don ± t need a lot of domain knowledge
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6 Some Problem Examples n Tower of Hanoi n Weighing problem n Traveling salesman (100 cities = 100! or 10 200 or each electron, 10 9 operations per sec. would take 10 11 years!!) but n 100,000 cities within 1% in 2 days via heuristic breakup (reduce search!) n Missionaries & Cannibals n Flashlight: 1, 2, 5, 10 min. walkers to cross bridge n 21 link gold necklace/21 day stay n Subway Problem n Vases (or 3-door)
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11 Early findings n Zeigarnik effect, 1927 n
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