HW+_1+Solution

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1. Identify the measurement system stages for the following systems (please remember that the control stage is not considered part of the measurement system). (a) Automobile speedometer (b) Throttle position sensor of a Formula One race car (c) Room thermostat (d) A microphone with an amplifier (e) A heart rate monitor. a) Thermostat Sensor/transducer: bimetallic thermometer Output: displacement of thermometer tip Controller: mercury contact switch (open: furnace off; closed: furnace on) b) Speedometer Method 1: Sensor: usually a mechanically coupled cable Transducer: Typically a dc generator that is turned by the cable producing an electrical signal Output: typically a pointer/scale (note: often a galvanometer is used to convert the electrical signal in a mechanical rotation of the pointer) Method 2: Sensor: A magnet attached to the rotating shaft Transducer: A Hall Effect device that is stationary but detects each sensor passage by creating voltage pulse Signal Conditioning: A pulse counting circuit; maybe also digital-analog converter (if analog readout is used) Output: An analog or digital readout calibrated to convert pulses per minute to kmph or mph. c) Portable CD Stereo Player Sensor: laser with optical reader (reflected light signal differentiates between a "1" and "0")
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