INFLAMMATION.ppt - INFLAMMATION INFLAMMATION The survival...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–18. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
INFLAMMATION
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
INFLAMMATION The survival of all organisms requires that they eliminate foreign invaders, such as infectious pathogens, and damaged tissues. These functions are mediated by a complex host response called inflammation.
Image of page 2
Inflammation is a protective response intended to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury as well as the necrotic cells and tissues resulting from the original insult.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Inflammation accomplishes its protective mission by diluting, destroying, or otherwise neutralizing harmful agents (e.g., microbes and toxins). Although inflammation helps clear infections and other noxious stimuli and initiates repair and the inflammatory reaction
Image of page 4
The cells and molecules of host defense normally circulate in the blood, and the goal of the inflammatory reaction is to bring them to the site of infection or tissue damage. Several types of cells and molecules play important roles in inflammation
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
These cells include: blood leukocytes plasma proteins cells of vascular walls cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the surrounding connective tissue
Image of page 6
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is rapid in onset and of short duration, lasting from a few minutes to as long as a few days, and is characterized by fluid and plasma protein exudation and a predominantly neutrophilic leukocyte accumulation. Chronic inflammation may be more insidious, is of longer duration (days to years), and is typified by influx of lymphocytes and macrophages with associated vascular proliferation and fibrosis (scarring).
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
ACUTE INFLAMMATION Acute inflammation is a rapid response to injury or microbes and other foreign substances that is designed to deliver leukocytes and plasma proteins to sites of injury
Image of page 8
Stimuli for Acute Inflammation Acute inflammatory reactions may be triggered by a variety of stimuli: Infections (bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic) Trauma (blunt and penetrating) Tissue necrosis (from any cause) Foreign bodies (splinters, dirt, sutures) Immune reactions (also called hypersensitivity reactions) against environmental substances or against self tissues.
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The external manifestations of inflammation (cardinal signs ) heat (calor) redness (rubor) swelling (tumor) pain (dolor) loss of function (functio laesa)
Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Morphologic & Functional Changes The morphologic and functional changes in acute inflammation were described in the late nineteenth century by Cohnheim , who demonstrated the vascular changes of injury in the vessels of a frog tongue . The two main components of the acute inflammatory response are: the microcirculatory response and the cellular response .
Image of page 14
Vascular Changes Changes in blood vessels begin rapidly after infection or injury but may develop at variable rates, depending on the nature and severity of the original inflammatory stimulus .
Image of page 15

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Infected ingrown toenail showing the characteristic redness and swelling associated with acute inflammation
Image of page 16
transient vasoconstriction -arteriolar
Image of page 17

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 18
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern