Management Test 2 Review

5 authority people tend to defer to and respect

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Unformatted text preview: rt of informal leaders who will influence their peers. (4) Consistency- people do what they are personally committed to do. (5) Authority- people tend to defer to and respect credible experts. (6) Scarcity- people want items, info, opportunities that are limited. Special opportunities and info are influence builders for managers. Two Types of Power- Socialized Power- directed at helping others. Personalized power- directed at helping oneself. French & Raven's Five Bases of Power- (1) Reward (2) coercive (3) legitimate- obtaining compliance thru formal authority (4) expert- obtaining compliance thru one's knowledge or info. (5) referent- obtaining compliance thru charisma or personal attraction. Personality becomes the reason for compliance. Research about Social Power- male and female have similar personalized power and power but women have higher need for socialized power. As women gain power, greater tension have been observed. Expert and referent power had positive impact. Reward and legitimate power had slightly positive impact. Coercive has slightly neg impact. Rational persuasion was found to be highly acceptable managerial influence tactic b/c employees perceived it to be associated with legitimate, expert, and referent power. Expert and referent appear to get the best combo of results and favorable reactions from lower level employees. Using Power Responsibility and ethically- responsible managers strive for socialized power while avoiding personalized power. Empowerment- Evolution of Power- empowerment- sharing varying degrees of power with lower level employees to tap their full potential. Domination- (Authoritarian Power)- Manager/leader imposes decisions Consultation (Influence Sharing)- manager/ leader consults followers when making decisions Participation (Power Sharing)- manager and followers jointly make decisions Delegation (Power Distribution)- followers granted authority to make decisions. Barriers to Delegation- belief in the fallacy, "If you want it done right, do it yourself", lack of confidence and trust in lower level employees, low self confidence, fear of being called lazy, vague job definition, fear of competition from those below, reluctance to take the risks involved in depending on others, lack of controls that provide early warning of problems with delegated duties, poor example set by bosses who do not delegate. Randolph's Empowerment Model- Share Information- Share company performance info, help people understand the business, build trust thru sharing sensitive information, create self monitoring possibilities. Create Autonomy thru Structure- Create a clear vision and clarify the little pictures, create new decision-making rules that support empowerment, clarify goals and roles collaboratively, establish new empowering performance management processes, uses heavy doses of training. Let Teams Become the Hierarchy- provide direction and training for new skills, provide encouragement and support for change, gradually have managers let go of control, work thru the leadership vacuum stage, acknowledge the fear factor. Uncertainty and Political Behavior- political maneuvering is triggered primarily by uncertainty. (1) Unclear objectives, (2) vague performance measures, (3) ill-defined decision processes, (4) strong individual or group competition, (5) any type of change. Since junior employees experience greater uncertainty, they are more political than seniors. Political Tactics- listed in descending order of occurrence, (1) attacking or blaming others, (2) using info as political tool, (3) creating favorable image (impression management), (4) developing a base of support, (5) praising others (ingratiation), (6) forming power coalitions with strong allies, (7) associating with influential people, (8) creating obligations (reciprocity) How to Keep Organizational Politics within Reasonable Bounds- screen out overly political individuals at hiring time, create an open book management system, make sure every employee knows how the business works and has a personal line of sight to key results with corresponding measurable objectives for individual accountability, have nonfinancial people interpret periodic financial and accounting statements for all employees, establish formal conflict resolution and grievance processes, as an ethics filter, do only what you would feel comfortable doing on national TV, publicy recognize and reward people who get real results without political games. Leadership- Chapter 16 Differences between leaders & managersBeing a leader means Motivating, influencing, changing behavior Inspiring, setting the tone, articulating vision Managing people Charismatic Visionary Understand and using power & influence Acting decisively Putting people first; the leader knows, responds to, and acts for his followers Leaders can make mistakes when: they choose the wrong goal, direction, or inspiration, due to incompetence or bad intentions they overlead they are unable to deliver on, implement the vision due to incompetence or a lack of follow thru commitment Being a manager means Practicing stewardship, directing and being held accountable Executing plans, implementing, and delivering goods +services Managing resources Conscientious Planning, organizing, directing, controlling Understand and using authority & responsibility Acting responsibly Putting customers first;...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course MAN 336 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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