Management Test 2 Review

Also the role of intrinsic motivation and empowerment

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Unformatted text preview: ronmental factors- task structure and work group dynamics are contingency factors that influence the effectiveness of leadership behaviors. Also, the role of intrinsic motivation and empowerment in influencing leadership effectiveness. Transformational Approach-Transactional leadership- focuses on clarifying employees' role and task requirements and providing followers with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance--based on using extrinsic motivation. Transformational leaders- engender trust, seek to develop leadership in others, exhibit self-sacrifice and serve as moral agents, focusing themselves and followers on objectives that transcend the more immediate needs of the group--fosters intrinsic motivation, trust, commitment, loyalty. Extraverted, agreeable, proactive and less neurotic than nontransofmrational leaders. Female are more transformational. (1) Bass and Avolio's four transformational leadership behaviors--inspirational motivationestablishing an attractive vision of the future, the use of emotional arguments and exhibition of optimism and enthusiasm., idealized influence- includes behaviors such as sacrificing for the good of the group, being a role model, displaying high ethical standards, which the leader uses to model the desired values, traits, beliefs, and behaviors needed to realize the vision, individualized consideration- entails behaviors associated with providing support, encouragement, coaching, and intellectual stimulation- behaviors that encourage employees to question the status quo and to seek innovative and creative solutions to organizational problems. (2) Full-range theory of leadership--leadership varies along a continuum from laissez-faire leadership to transactional leadership to transformational leadership. Emerging Approaches- (1) Leader- member exchange (LMX) model- dyadic relationships between leaders and followers is critical. (2) Shared Leadership- mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading. Most needed when people work in teams, are involved in complex projects, and when people are doing knowledge work. Also beneficial when people are working on tasks or projects that require interdependence and creativity. Positively correlated with group cohesion, citizenship, effectiveness.(3) Collins Level 5 leadership--leader has humility plus fearless will to succeed, plus four other capabilities. They not only possess transactional and transformational traits, but also the traits of humility and determination. Level 1 and 2 are consistent with trait theory- leaders are intelligent, self confident, determined, honest, sociable, emotionally intelligent, extroverted, conscientious. Level 3 and 4 are associated with transactional and transformational. Level 5 integrates components of trait theory and full range throry of leadership. (4) Greenleaf's servant leadership--providing service to others not oneself. (1) Listening, (2) Empathy, (3) Healing, (4) Awareness, (5) Persuasion, (6) Conceptualization, (7) Foresight, (8) Stewardship, (9) Commitment to the growth of people, (10) Building community. (5) Role of followers in leadership process--followers manage the leader-follower relationship. The reason there are so many approaches is because we don't have a clue. Foundations of Motivation- Chapter 8 Maslow's Need Hierarchy- (1) Physiological- most basic need. Entails having enough food, air, water to survive. (2) Safety- consists of the need to be safe from physical and psychological harm. (3) Love- the desire to be loved and to love. Contains the needs for affection and belonging. (4) Esteem- need for reputation, prestige, recognition from others and need for self confidence and strength. (5) Self-actualization- desire for self fulfillment--to become the best one is capable of becoming. McClelland's Need Theory- (1) need for achievement- to accomplish something difficult. To master, manipulate, or organize physical objects, human beings, or ideas. To do this as rapidly and independently as possible. These people share (1) a preference for working on tasks of moderate difficulty, (2) a preference for situations in which performance is due to their efforts rather than other factors such as luck, (3) they desire more feedback on their successes and failures. (2) need for affiliation- people with high need for affiliation prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved. They are not the most effective managers b/c they worry about being like and disliked. (3) need for power- an individuals desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve. People with high need for power like to work and are concerned with discipline and self respect. Neg side is "I win you lose" mentality. Positive side is they focus on accomplishing group goals and helping employees obtain the feelings of competence. Not best suited for top management positions....
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