Management Test 2 Review

Explains how an individuals motivation to behave in a

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Unformatted text preview: Equity Theory- a model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships. Explains how an individual's motivation to behave in a certain way is fueled by feelings of inequity or lack of justice. Adam's equity theory is an awareness of key components of the individual- organization exchange relationship which is pivotal in the formation of employees' perceptions of equity and inequity. Expectancy Theory- Vrooms expectancy theory holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combos of expected outcomes. It can be used to predict motivation and behavior in any situation in which a choice between two or more alternatives must be made. For example, it can be used to predict whether to quit or stay at a job, whether to exert substantial or minimal effort at a task, and whether to major in management, finance, marketing...Motivation, according to Vroom, boils down to the decision of how much effort to exert in a specific task situation. First, motivation is affected by an individual's expectation that a certain level of effort will produce the intended performance goal. Motivation is also influenced by the employee's perceived chances of getting various outcomes as a result of accomplishing his or her performance goal. Finally, individuals are motivated to the extent that they value the outcomes received. Vroom's model- expectancy, instrumentality, valence. Goal Setting Research- Setting performance goals increases individual, group, and organizational performance. (1) difficult goals lead to higher performance, (2) specific, difficult goals lead to higher performance for simple rather than complex tasks, (3) feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals, (4) participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are equally effective, (5) goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-setting outcomes. Unfortunately, research uncovered that goal based bonus incentives produced higher commitment to easy goals and lower commitment to difficult goals. People with high goal commitment also offered less help to their co-workers when they received goal based bonus incentives to accomplish difficult individual goals. They also neglected aspects of the job that were not covered in the performance goals. Job Enlargement, Rotation & Enrichment- Job Enlargement- involves putting more variety into a worker's job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty. Also called horizontally loading the job. Job Rotation- calls for moving employees from one specialized job to another. This increases worker flexibility and easier scheduling. Job Enrichment- entails modifying a job such that an employee has the opportunity to experience achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement. They are incorporated thru vertical loading which consists of giving workers more responsibility. Employees take on tasks normally performed by their supervisors. Improving Job Performance- Chapter 9 SMART Goals- Specific, Measurable- a measurement device is needed to assess the extent to which a goal is accomplished, Attainable- need to be realistic, challenging, and attainable, Results oriented- should focus on desired end results that support the organization's vision; an individual's goals should directly support the accomplishment of corp goals; goals should start with the word to followed by verbs such as complete, acquire, produce, increase, decrease, and verbs such as develop, conduct, implement, monitor that imply activities, should not be used, Time bound. Extrinsic & Intrinsic Rewards- Extrinsic- financial, material, social rewards from the environment; an employee who works to obtain these rewards, such as money or praise, is extrinsically motivated. Intrinsic- psychic rewards, self granted; one who derives pleasure from the task itself or experiences a sense of competence or self-determination is intrinsically motivated. Model of Intrinsic Motivation- Choice- delegated authority, trust in workers, security (no punishment) for honest mistakes, a clear purpose, information. Managers lead for choice by empowering employees and delegating meaningful assignments and tasks. Competence- knowledge, positive feedback, skill recognition, challenge, high, non-comparative standards. Managers lead for competence by supporting and coaching their employees. Meaningfulness- a non-cynical climate, clearly identified passions, an exciting vision, relevant task purposes, whole tasks. Managers lead for meaningfulness by inspiring their employees and modeling desired behaviors. Progress- a collaborative climate, milestones, celebrations, access to customers, measurement of improvement. Managers lead for progress by monitoring and rewarding others. Why Extrinsic Rewards Fail- (1) too much emphasis on monetary rewards. (2) rewards lack an "app...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course MAN 336 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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